Friday, November 29, 2019
How could the personal and social tensions between characters in the plays you have studied be expressed on stage? Australian plays make any normal situation intriguing and unique while exposing AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural, social, political and personal issues and concerns. This influences the way in which audiences understand and respond to the subliminal messages that different Australian practitioners use. The playwrights of both Ruby Moon By Mat Cameron and Stolen By Jane Harrison use dramatic forms, performance styles and techniques to establish strong personal and social tensions between characters in both plays. Social issues are anything that effects a large part of society for example, the stolen generation, suburban paranoia, discrimination ect where as personal issues refer to issues that affect an individual in relation to things like grief, loss and identity. The play Ã¢â¬Å"Ruby MoonÃ¢â¬ by Matt Cameron explores strong issues and fears that have accumulated throughout post modern and modern society today. We will write a custom essay sample on Ruby Moon or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Cameron creates a sense of loss and grief by using the story of a young girl called ruby who goes missing on her way to her grandmas. Cameron purposefully makes all the characters in the play who are involved in the mystery of the girl are dysfunctional and the play ends up making no logical sense but still elicits a range of emotions from the audience. Although the play may not make logical sense Cameron uses several dramatic techniques that convey issues that individuals may face in everyday life, namely the issues of grief and loss and how these emotions can be dealt with this is especially clear between the characters of Ray and Sylvie as the dialogue and positioning between the characters is quite cold and distant for example when Ray waits for a kiss Ã¢â¬Ëthat never comesÃ¢â¬â¢ and they Ã¢â¬Ëstare cold at each otherÃ¢â¬â¢ these stage directions are created by Cameron to establish the strong tension between both the characters which suggests that the way in which they are dealing with these personal concerns are not rational. The social issue of suburban paranoia is a strong point that Cameron establishes in his play. The play is designed to be dark, creepy and absurd this creates a certain tension between the characters on stage and then also with the audience and the characters. It creates a sense of uncertainty, the characters donÃ¢â¬â¢t trust their neighbours and we as an audience canÃ¢â¬â¢t even trust the actors on stage. I found this became apparent with Dulcie who is an elderly spinster with a parrot, we are quickly shown that she is slightly senile and this bird that she has conversations with may in fact be imaginary. The audience does not know what to believe which then relates back to the idea of suburban paranoia. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with child abductions is the foundation for one of ruby moons central ideas, and raises the question Ã¢â¬Å"do you really know your neighbour? Ã¢â¬ is mainly established when Ray saysÃ¢â¬ we told her never to trust a strangerÃ¢â¬ . The disappearance of Ruby shows the tension that has unfolded between the relationships of Ray, Sylvie and the community. The mystery of the missing child begins to turn all the characters on the street against each other and the lack of trust becomes more apparent, but the strained relationship between Ray and Sylvie becomes more and more over whelming as the story goes on. The last scene has Sylvie and Ray begin to question each other about the disappearance of their child. Speeding this scene up and using different tones as well as dialogue used helps the audience to understand the personal issue of failing to even be able to trust your loved ones in some circumstances. Cameron also establishes wider social tensions like living in fear of society and the fear of this changing society of how things used to be compared to how they are now and no longer feeling safe with children walking and playing on the streets at night. One of the many other techniques Matt Cameron uses in this play is the use of a timeless and placeless setting designed for the play. This is created by the fact that there is nondescript furniture and props that could be found in any suburban house, there is a lack of posters and pictures and there is no technology like television or computers that could date the production. The furniture used is described to be old and presumably covered in dust to symbolise the feeling of evoking memories. This symbolisation is important as it expands on the personal issues like grief and lost which are dealt with throughout the play. Cameron aims to engage the audience fully, making them see the relevance of the issues being portrayed on stage in the hope that the audience would watch the play and think of all the past and present missing children.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Group Forming Ã¢â¬â Psychology Final Group Research Paper Free Online Research Papers Group Forming Psychology Final Group Research Paper Group is two or more interdependent individuals who influence one another through social interaction. (Donelson R. Forsyth, pg.2) Group therapy is setting in a group of people support each other in making changes in their lives. Some common concerns are discomfort in social settings, depression, relationship issues, loss, anxiety, or trauma. (The university of Maine-group therapy- see QA: IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t individual better than group therapy) The group size is usually depend on the age of clients, experiences of leader, type of group and problem to be explored. For a weekly ongoing adult group, the ideal group size would be eight participants and one counselor. For adolescent, the ideal group size would be six to eight people. For children participant in elementary school, the ideal size would be three to four people. The frequency of the group meeting is depending on the group. If the group taking place in a school setting, the meeting time would depend on the class period. For group of relatively well-functioning adults, weekly two hours group session would be good for them. In general, the high school groups and college groups typically run about fifteen weeks. Fifteen weeks should be longer enough for people to develop trust toward behavior change. The place to held meeting should be not clutter, and allow for comfortable seating arrangement. Groups usually seat in a circle because this setting could make all participants to see each other and also allow members have enough freedom of the physical movement. (Marianne Schneider Corey and Gerald Corey, 2005) For the in-class group, we have seven participants that include six students and one professor. We usually held our meeting in the classroom, and the meeting usually runs by half hour or less than one hour. During the group meeting, we always seat in a circle. Advantage, Disadvantage and Goal of Group Group provides some advantages which include support, belonging, awareness, confrontation, universality, catharsis, vicarious learning, group as a microcosm, feedback, and simulation of primary family. For example, the group of physical difficulties. The group counseling with people who have physical difficulties, the advantage would be following: 1. Group can help people strive toward the resolution of some common by providing them with the opportunity to learn from one another through sharing common concern and problem and generating solutions to obstacles and difficulties. 2. Group offer members a forum for the emotional release of burdensome personal issues in a supportive setting. Realizing that others face similar problems tends to lessen the anxiety and fear that accompany various disabling conditions. 3. The group experience can partially alleviate the stress, pain, and misery often generated by physician disability and further aggravated by social isolation, separation from family and friend, and perceived alienation from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own group. 4. The group experience eases the transition into the able-bodied community. Through modeling and various socialization and social building exercise, group members learn and practice how to better deal with outside community and its various imposed barriers. 5. Through the group modality, leader are able to develop a more accurate and comprehensive psychosocial assessment of group members. 6. Development of social support network is often facilitated through the relationship formed during group counseling. Issues such as empowerment, hopefulness, search for meaning, and gaining spirituality require a support network to be fully explored. A successful platform for their exploration can be provided within a group context. (Hanoch Livneh, Lisa M Wilson, Robert E Pullo, 2004) The disadvantage of the group would be following: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to establish trust between all members in the group. It is harder to ensure confidentiality. There is higher risk of having causalities in group It is more difficult for the counselor to track all the participants. Each group has their own goal to move on. The goal would separate two parts which include group goals and individual goal. Following are the common goals to many different types of group. Become aware of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s interpersonal style Increase awareness of what prevent intimacy Learn how to trust oneself and others Become aware of how oneÃ¢â¬â¢s culture affect personal decision Increase self-awareness and thereby increase the possibilities for choice and action Challenge and explore certain early decisions (most like made during childhood that may no longer by functional Recognize that others have similar problems and feelings clarify values and decide whether and how to modify them Become both independent and interdependent Find better ways to resolve problem Become more open and honest with selected others Learn a balance between support and challenge Become sensitive to the needs and feelings of others Provide others with helpful feedback (Marianne Schneider Corey, and Gerald Corey,2005, pg. 146) A good group leader has to assist group member to define a personal goal. The ASGW guideline state that group leader has responsibility to assist members in develop their personal goal in a collaborative fashion. (Marianne Schneider Corey, and Gerald Corey, 2005, pg. 148) For example, Alcoholic Anonyms (AA) Group, the goal for AA would be stop drinking, stay sobriety. For people who went to AA, AA help abuser confront difficult issues and learn to cope with life stresses more effectively. AA provide very supportive network. In our group, the advantage would be there is no judging. The fact is there is no one has an experience to work with a counseling group. Therefore, all of us here is to learn how to work with a group, how to lead a group, being a leader what should we focus on, and what should we take care of. We are here to understand and help each other to live in better life. So, there is no right or wrong answer. The main goal is to learn how to be a success counselor in our future life. The disadvantage in our in-class group would be hard to lead the group. I felt when we running a group and a leader asked anyone wants to share; we would always quiet for a period. There is no one wants to start discussion. Why Group therapy better than Individual Therapy? Group therapy is typically half the cost of individual therapy and is therefore often a first resort for people who cannot afford private sessions or steep insurance copays. (Darby Saxbe, 2005) Ã¢â¬Å"Research has demonstrated that almost any concern that brings you in for counseling can be dealt with in group therapy as well or even better than it can in individual therapy.Ã¢â¬ (The university of Maine-group therapy- see QA: IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t individual better than group therapy) Ã¢â¬Å"Group therapy usually more efficient than individual for two reasons which are following: First, you can benefit from group even during session when you say little by listening carefully to others. You will find you have much in common with other group member, and as they work on a concern you can learn more about yourself. Second, group members will often bring up issues that strike a chord with you, but which you might not have been aware of or brought up yourself.Ã¢â¬ (Therapy groups at CAPS- se e QA: isnÃ¢â¬â¢t individual therapy better?) According to Philip G ErwinÃ¢â¬â¢s (1999) study, he found for people who participant in structure group counseling, they often rate more positively than individual counseling. A structure training program would help participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ focus on current tasks and prevent excessive off-task behavior. The study also point out a structure group counseling may be useful for directing and focusing activity, experience are always interpreted and the full benefit of exercises will undoubtedly accrue to those who are most fully involved and committed. Rule for running a group The first rule for running a group would be Do No Harm. Second rule would be confidentiality. When we running our in-class group, group leaders always mention those two rules which would be Ã¢â¬Å"Do No Harm and whatever says here, stays hereÃ¢â¬ . When I participant the AA meeting, they also mention the second rules all the time. Ã¢â¬Å"Everything says here, stays hereÃ¢â¬ To provide a safety environment is extremely important in the group. The third rule for running a group would be respectful. Each group members have to respect one another includes sex, culture, and etc. Group Process Groups always run into four stages which include Initial Stage, Transition Stage, Working Stage, and Ending or Termination Stage. Initial Stage: ? Characteristics of initial stage: ? Participants test the atmosphere and get acquainted ? Risk taking is relatively low, and exploration in tentative ? Members are concerned with whether thy are include or exclude ? Trust and mistrust is a central issues ? Period of silence and awkwardness may occur ? Member are deciding how much they will disclosed and how safe the group is ? Common fear experienced by group members: o Anxiety over being accepted or rejected o Concern about the judgment of others o Afraid of appearing stupid o Concerns about not fitting into the group o Not knowing what is expected o Concern over communication feelings and thoughts effectively ? Advantage of developing here and now focus ? Dealing with the here and now energizes the group ? Members are best know by disclosing here and now experience ? Being in the here and now serves as a spring borad for exploring everyday life ? Leader attitude and behavior that generate test ? Careful attending the genuine listening empathy ? Empathy ? Genuineness and self-disclosure ? Respect ? Caring confrontation ? Group leader issues at the initial stage ? Division of responsibility- how to achieve a balance of sharing responsibility with members ? Degree of structuring- creating a structure that will enable members to make maximum use a group process ? Opening group session- how to best open group and help member gain a focus ? Closing group session0 how to best bring a session to closure without closing down further work later on? ? Rounds: We will address next week. (Walter,2005) I remembered the first experience when I walking to the class, I felt nervous, anxious. The first night, we had ice break activity. The purpose of the activity is to make all of us to know more about each other. When we started to run the group, I felt a little bit uncomfortable, because I am going to share the stuff with people that I am not familiar with, that really feel not so good because I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know I can trust them or not. Sep. 14 is the first of our in-class group meeting, we were talking about self-image. I shared my experience regarding language barriers that would make me frustrated. Jan and Terry also shared their experience regarding people misunderstand them would make them frustrated. Jan shared her experience regarding when she is not angry and people keep asking her are you angry? That would make her frustrated and then, really angry at the end. At the begging, I felt it would be really hard to start to talk about. But, after I started, I felt it is not hard, especially, I felt all of you were respect me, and really pay attention regarding what I said in the group. All of the members support me to share my experience that was really positive to me. I felt people wanted to listen to me; they cared about what I said. None of you cut off when I was speaking. It made me felt safe and support of the environment. A counselor to provide a safety environment is very important in this stage because most of the member would felt uncomfortable at the beginning. To provide a safety environment would keep members to stay in the group. We should give newcomer a positive experience of their first meeting. If we provide a negative experience to our clients, they would never come back. Transition Stage ? Characteristic of the transition stage ? Transitional phase is marked by feeling of anxiety and defenses ? Member are ? Testing the leader and other members to determine how safe the environment is ? Struggling between wanting to ply it safe and wanting to risk getting involved ? Observing the leader to determine if he or she is trustworthy ? Learning how to express themselves so that others will listen ? Thought on dealing with resistance therapeutically ? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t label all hesitations as a sign of resistance ? Respect resistance- realize that member resistance may be serving a function ? Invite members to explore the meaning of what appears to be resistance ? Describe behavior of members-avoid making too many interpretations ? Approach resistance with interest, understanding, and compassion ? Common fears at the transition stage ? Fear of making a fool of oneself ? Fear of emptiness ? Fear of lose control ? Fear of being too emotional ? Fear of self-disclosure ? Fear of taking too much o group time ? Fear of being judged ? Leader function during the Transition group ? Show member the value of recognizing and dealing fully with conflict situations ? Help members to recognized their own pattern of defensiveness ? Teach members to respect resistance and to work constructively with the many forms it tasks ? Provide a model for members by dealing directly and tearfully with any challenge ? Encourage members to express reactions that pertain to here and now happening in the session Working Stage ? Key point in working stage ? There are no arbitrary dividing line between each stage of group ? Group development ebbs and flows- does not stay static ? Work can occur at every stage-not just the working stage ? Not all group reach a working stage ? Not all members are functioning at the same level in a working stage ? Group norm and behavior at the working stage ? Both support and challenge to take risk in group ? Leader use a variety of therapeutic interventions ? Members interact with each other in more direct way ? Healing capacity develops within the group ? Increased group cohesion fosters action-oriented behaviors ? Characteristic of a productive group ? Conflict in the group is recognized and explored ? Members are willing to make themselves known ? Trust are safety are increased ? There is a focus on the here and now ? Goals of members are clear and specific ? Cohesion is high-a sense of emotional bonding in the group ? Characteristic of nonworking group ? Mistrust is manifested by an undercurrent of unexpressed feelings ? Participants focus more on others than themselves ? Participants hold back- disclosure is minimal ? Members may feel distant from one another ? Conflicts are ignored or avoided ? Communicational is unclear and indirect The film- Twelve Angry Men is a good movie to present this stage. In the movie, twelve juries are working on the same goal. The goal is clear and specific for them; the goal is to decide the boy is guilty or not. According the movie, we can see the members interact with each other more directed way. They have conflict during the process. For example, character number 3 had been fight with character number 8. They are focus here and now during the process, such as, they focus on every question they had been raised, and try to solve the problem together. Like the glass mark on the nose. In the film, both support and challenge take risk in the group. During the group process, character number 8 had been raise a big issues for other juries, and then, he encourage others to share their idea, also encourage them to find out more evidence to prove the boy might probably not guilty. Nov 16th, I believe Chris play an amazing job on working stage. During the group session, he asked couple of questions that make all of us to think about the film again. He provide the positive feedback during the group session, for example, when Terry point out the Character number 8 were like angry in the film because he is the only one who wear White. Chris gave the positive feedback to Terry, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"yes, you are right, when think about the film again, when he was stand in front of the window, he is the only one who were white, others were blacks.Ã¢â¬ Then, Chris made other question that made us interesting about the topic. For example, he raised the problem like, Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s talks about other characters in the film, and is there are anyone thinks they would change? And what they get from the group?Ã¢â¬ And, that really make all of us to discuss the character regarding what their got from the group, and what kind of issue they might changed, and how could I see the point of that person. During the group session, he listened to us, he brings issues that make all of us to find the comment, he also encouraged us to talk about their experience and he give a positive feedback. Termination Stage ? Tasks of the final stage of group ? Dealing with feeling of separation and unfinished business ? Review the group experience ? Preview the group experience ? Practice for behavior change ? Giving and receiving feedback ? Ways of carrying learning further ? The use of contract and homework ? Leader functions during the ending phase of group ? Assist members in dealing with any feeling they might have about termination ? Reinforce changes that members have made during the group ? Work with members to develop specific contracts and homework assignment ? Provide opportunities for members to give one another constructive feedback ? Reemphasize the importance of maintaining confidentiality after group is over ? Leader function after termination of group ? Offer private consultations if any member should need this service ? Provide for a follow-up group session or follow-up individual interviews ? Identify referral sources for members who may need further assistance ? Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the group ? Giving and receive feedback at the ending stage The sentence completion method can enhance the quality of feedback can result in focus feedback, such as following: ? My greatest fear for you isÃ¢â¬ ¦ ? My hope for you is.. ? I see you blocking your strengths byÃ¢â¬ ¦ ? Some things I hope you will think about doing for yourself areÃ¢â¬ ¦ ? Applying what is learned in group to everyday life Members can reminded of way to translate what was learned in group and assisted in developing action plans geared to change, such as following: ? A group is a means to an end ? Change is bound to be slow and subtle ? Focus more on changing yourself than on changing others ? Decide what you will do with what you learned about yourself (Walter, 2005, lecture six) According to our in-class group experience, we did not run into this stage. But, according to CoreyÃ¢â¬â¢s videotape, he did present this stage very well. In this stage, it is very important for group members to bring the power from the group to outside. Being a good counselor, we have to challenge client to make contract, have homework, make them realize the unfinished business, and etc. For client, itÃ¢â¬â¢s all about what you learning, how did you lean, and what do you think you taking away from the group. Those are the issues present in Termination stage. If I am a group leader who is going to run Termination stage, I will give homework to all of my group members on the session before the last meeting. The homework is to review your experience about the group. You can put your thinking, what did you learn from the group, the group experience which would be significant for you and etc. On the last day of the course, I want my group members to share what they wrote in the group. And, I would also want them to make a contract to the group regarding unfinished business. I want my groups walk out the door; and still remember the experience they got from the group. The experience would help them and encourage them keep working in their life. What would influence the group development? George Smith (2001) mention there are three factors that McCollom (1999) point out would affect the group development. The factors are (1) groupÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with its environment, (2) internal group relations, and (3) the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s temporal boundaries. The groupÃ¢â¬â¢s environment would influence the group relationship. Such as, the large organization can affect group process in terms of authority relations and in the defining of group tasks. Internal relations would also affect on group development. That included the composition and site of the group and skills and personalities of group members. The study shows the leadership dynamic and subgroup relations within the group are potential forces that could affect group development. The groupÃ¢â¬â¢s temporal boundaries are also another element affect group development. McCollom notes groups are like other living system therefore, their lives are finite. Another important time-related factor is what McCollom refers to as Ã¢â¬Å"temporal context.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Temporal context reers to things such as seasonal cycles or historal evenbts, presumably past, present and future, and could affect how a group operated, develops, and perhaps even changes over time.Ã¢â¬ Role in group There are three different roles which include leadership, observer and participant would be presenting in the group. ? Leadership- Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership is influence, operating, and improving. Influence client by providing purpose, direction, and motivation. Operating is an action taken to achieve the sort term goals of accomplishing the overall goals. Group leader would operating planning preparing, executing, and assessing. Improving is group leader strive to improve everything entrusting to them. Group leader would improve on people, training opportunities, and resource for clients. There are five different leader styles which are following: 1. Directing leader style- ? Leader Centered ? DonÃ¢â¬â¢t solicit input form clients ? Give detailed instructions ? Supervise execution very colsely 2. Participating leader style- ? Center pm the leader and the group ? Leader ask clients for input, information and recommendations ? Make final decision themselves 3. Delegating leader style- ? Giving clients the authority to solve problems and make decision without clearing them thought the leader. 4. Transformational- Transform clients by challenging them to rise above their immediate needs and self interest: ? Is developmental, emphasizes personal growth and organizational enhancement ? Empowering and mentally stimulating client (first as individuals then as a groups) ? Leader communicates intent then steps back and let clients work. The impact of transformation leadership on the group would be following ? Impact ? Recruiting-selection, promotion, and transfer ? Development ? Training ? Approach to training ? Leadership education ? Job design and assignment ? Organizational structure 5. Transactional- ? Motivating clients to work by offering reward or threatening punishment ? Prescribing tasks in writing ? Outlining all condictions of task completion ? Management by exception-focus on failuresÃ¢â¬ ( Walter, 2005) Our in-class group is hard to assign a group leader each time. The first time experience to participant the group is a treasure for group leader, because the emotion, feeling that you had at that moment would guild you to understand a new comerÃ¢â¬â¢s emotion and feeling. ? Observer- Being an observer in the group, I have to know who is participant the group, the position of their role, to understand the whole process regarding what type of the issue bring to the group, the interaction between the members, and etc. Those are important to address. For our in-class group, I tried to put myself to be an observer every time. Being an observer I have to know who set where, and the interaction between the members. On Nov 16th, Chris was a leader to lead us to running to the group regarding the topic to discuss the film of twelve angry men. We were set in a circle, the turn would be Chris, Dr. Walter, Darrel, Terry, me, Daniel, and Jan, (left turn) The stage would be working stage. Chris asked couple of questions that make all of us to think about the film again. When Terry point out the Character number 8 were like angry in the film because he is the only one who wear White. Chris gave the positive feedback to Terry, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"yes, you are right, when think about the film again, when he was stand in front of the window, he is the only one who were white, others were blacks.Ã¢â¬ The question that Chris had raised, make us interesting on the topic. I do believe he create an amazing job on Work stage. He listened to us, he gave issues that make all of us to find the comment, and he also encouraged people to talk about their experience. For example, he raised the problem like, Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s talks about other characters in the film, is there are anyone think they would change? And what they get from the group?Ã¢â¬ that really make all of us to discuss the character regarding what their got from the group, and what kind of issue they might changed, and how could I see the point of that person.Ã¢â¬ To observer AA meeting, make me realize what is AA, howÃ¢â¬â¢s the group function, the interaction between the members. AA is self-funning group. People would attend AA because they want to stop drink. Stop drinking is their specific goal. In the group, I saw the connection between the members which was they all had drinking problem; therefore, thy found the common between them. During the group session, I saw safety, trusting, and confidentiality. They all focus on themselves, not other people, not the relationship with any one else. They just focus on themselves. They shared their life stories, they might cry in the group. The advantage for people to attend AA was there was no judge. For me, to attending AA is a great experience to combine with our group counseling course because I saw the group running exactly what I learned. I saw what is AA, the goal for AA, how could AA running, what would AA provide to people, and the interaction between the members. ? Participant- usual participant experience. Add the feeling, and what do I see in AA In our group session, I do have more chance to being a participant. I still remember the first experience to participant the group. I am anxious, nervous, and not comfortable to talk to people who I am not familiar with regarding my problem in my life. Attending our group meeting make me realize there are some connect between us. For example, when we discuss self-image, I found the common connection between all of the people in the classroom. The language barriers make me frustrated when people misunderstand. Sometimes the tone and the statement were all make me frustrated. Jen and Terry also talked about what people misunderstand them, which would make them frustrated, too. Jan shared her experience regarding when she is not angry, and people keep tell her or ask her regarding Ã¢â¬Å"you are angryÃ¢â¬ , that would make her frustrated and angry at the end. Our In-class running group, we had been discussing different topics that full in our life. The first time experience would be a trouser for me because the feeling I got at the moment would be the same feeling that newcomer might have. Multicultural Ã¢â¬Å"Self-disclosure is a central behavior in group counseling, which is fundamental to all therapeutic factors in group work. The behavior is particular sensitivity to cultural differences when comparing collectivist authoritarian societies with individualist, democratic ones.Ã¢â¬ (Zipora Shechtman, Aya Hiradin, and Samahar Zina, 2003) Counselors are ethnically responsible for developing skills to communicate effectively with clients from other cultures. Therefore, a white counselor should be striving to obtain both actual experience and information about specific Black cultural group and their worldviews. The counselor should take time to find out from the client about those aspects of his or her culture that are particularly significant to the counseling relationship. Counselors also need to acquaint themselves with how their cross-cultural clients refer to themselves and their own communities. A professional counselor should create a positive regard, and empathy, has the potential to span cultural boundaries. (Jurdora J. Spangenerg, 2003) There is a real study of a support group for Asian international students by Loetta L. Carr, Miki Koyama, and Monica Thiagarajan (2003) They point out to assist cross culture groups especially international students, counseling has to know the culture values, beliefs, and etc. For Asian students, they think to see counseling as shameful and embarrassing because a cultural stigma is often attached to emotional expression in their societies. A professional counselor has to build up support, safe environment when he/ she work with multicultural group. In this study, Ã¢â¬Å"the support group is seeing for socializing; practicing English; addressing academic, personal and social concern, and acculturation stresses; and receiving support from culturally sensitive counselor.Ã¢â¬ I am an international student in U.S.A., I could understand when people coming from different country their emotion, and thinking. My experience tells me to help those students to give support and a positive feedback and listen to them are the best way to encourage those students to move on. I still remembered the pain of prejudice, and non-respect. Therefore, those are good lesson for me when I face people who coming from different ethic group. Personal Growth The first day of the counseling session, I was nervous, anxious, little bit afraid, donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what should I talk to others. Until, I was kind families, understand, and comfortable to be with each one of the classmate. Who else do I see the growth for our in-class group? I did have chance to work with each participant in our class. And, I got deep impression of Jan. Jan had two experience to lead our in-class group. I personal felt she did the first one better than second one. But, the second one, she did pay attention on On Dec. 7th, is the first time, I had an experience to work with Jan. we have to practice training exercise number one which is a college student who have a problem regarding her school. She thinks she is not good enough in U of C. And, she is the first person to pursue a college education in her family. In this case, I was a student, and Jan was a counselor. When we role play this case, I felt she really concerned about my case. Her questions were right on target. For example, is there are any problem that makes you cannot concentrate on your reading? How about your time management? How many courses do you take this semester? She also did a good job regarding referral. Such as, she suggests me to find a tutor. I felt what she had been done on the role play; she did followed ADDRESSING, ADDIE, and BASIC ID. ADDRESSING- o A- age and generational influences o D-development o D-disabo;otoes o R-religious and spiritual orientation o E-ethnicity o S-socioeconomic status o S-sexual orientation o I-indigenous heritage o N-national origin o Gender ADDIE o A-Analysis o D-Design o D-Development o I-Implement o E-evaluate BASIC-ID o Behavior o Affect o Sensation o Imagery o Cognition o Interpersonal o Drug/biology (Walter, Lecture #10, 2005) What else do I learn from the class? On Nov. 30th is my first time to being a counselor. I volunteer to be a counselor with DemÃ¢â¬â¢s case. Terry was a role of Dem. I took the chance to be a counselor because of two reasons; first, I never have chance of role play for the counselor. Second, I really want to see what I grew after taking many of the counseling courses. Third, I felt more comfortable to role play in front of you-Dr. Walter because since I have class with you, you always support me a lot. Being a success counselor, there are five different parts that we have to pay attention, which are Attending, paraphrasing and summarizing, Reflect the feeling, Getting Concrete, and Referral. (1) Attending includes- direct eye contact, body language/post out, focus, listen to client, smooth and clam. When student come to your office, a counselor should stand up and welcome the student. The office should be always open and welcome. (2) Paraphrasing and Summarizing- is to stop client rambling. Counselor should make a cl ear statement regarding what client told you. You may make clear statement about clientÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling. In this part, I Research Papers on Group Forming - Psychology Final Group Research PaperThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenWhere Wild and West MeetResearch Process Part OneThe Fifth HorsemanThree Concepts of PsychodynamicHip-Hop is ArtQuebec and CanadaThe Project Managment Office System19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided Era
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The American Revolution - Essay Example Freedom is one of the basic rights of every person in every nation and is among the longest standing aspirations of the west (McDonald and Hoffmann 143). It is essential to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s growth as it allows a person to exercise his privileges. However, there was a time in the history that this basic right was suppressed by foreign nations who wanted to enlarge their territories by conquering undiscovered lands. Oppression was their method in order to get by force lands that they want. People resisted their oppression for years, until they woke up one day realizing the importance of liberty. The United States of America nowadays exercises their freedom to the fullest. These liberties are guaranteed by their Constitution through their Bill of Rights (Shain 166). These rights, now enjoyed by the people of America, are the product of years of battle for independence and self-preservation. It is noteworthy to revisit the past and know how difficult it was for the people who shed their lives and blood to get the gift of liberty. Americans nowadays are special because they exercise their freedom to the fullest extent. With the help of the American government, the rights of people are being upheld and afforded protection from any oppression. They are now harvesting the gifts of the bloody American Revolution. This paper will briefly discuss the American Revolution and how they won battle which freed its people and its nation from the oppression of the British. It will also expound on how American people are special for having the gift of independence as quoted by Wood in his book The American Revolution. American Revolution It is worth remembering the past. It is a humble experience to realize what the Americans before did to have free country today. What they planted many years ago was the seed of courage and independence which the Americans nowadays reaped. They fought well not just to reprise from foreign oppression, but to assert their longing for independence. With that, Americans inherited a free nation. For 150 years, the Americans were able to resist the British rule. The American Revolution did not abruptly start. Different events which are cumulative in nature, lead to the eruption of the said war (Burg 3). It involves the global conflicts which affected Europe, Asia and North A merica (Lancaster and Plumb 7). The war broke out on 1754, when the French and American troops clashed in Pennsylvania causing the latter loss. Consequently, France and Great Britain declared war against North America. Americans grew mad upon the imposition of taxes because they knew that such imposts were discriminately applied. This policy was questioned by the Americans for being unconscionable and iniquitous (Bonwick 3). Because of this battle, the isolated groups came together as one. The States formed allies with one another to combat the predicament they were currently facing. These charters, through their meetings, were able to come up with liberal ideas that set the standard of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s independent United States of America (Lancaster and Plumb Introduction). After the ruthless war and blood shed by the people of the America, George Washington and some of advocates aspired for total independence. Independence on the ways they are going to run the country, and that the people will be able to exercise their natural and moral rights without foreign influence. This means that the people of America may be afforded their full rights and shall be given a safeguard against those who oppressed them. On 2nd of July 1776, the United States of America is declared independent Ã¢â¬â a free nation. Consequently, Thomas Jefferson, one of the countries prominent statesmen, drafted the declaration of
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
People on organization - Essay Example Before the actual date of the meeting, participants have to be selected appropriately. A meeting within an organization should not contain all the members of the organization but only the members that are affected or required to impact the meeting. The selection of members of a meeting will depend on the type of meeting. For instance, a meeting to negotiate terms and conditions of work between employer and employees does not necessarily require attendance of all the employees. Instead, members can be drawn from the membership of employee unions. This selection will limit the possibility of waste of time from irrelevant input and lack of concern in the meeting. Setting the objectives of the meeting or the agenda is another preparatory process. Here, the person or group that calls the meeting will develop a set of concerns that the meeting will address. The main consideration here is given to the type of meeting. If the meeting is to address a dispute, then the objectives are limited to the scope of a dispute of resolution and the stakeholders are duly informed. The agenda is then distributed to the stakeholders before the meeting to allow time for the stakeholders to gather high-quality information on the subject matter. It also gives the participants time to make their schedules comply with the timeframe of the meeting (Gamage 2006). Giving each stakeholder time for preparation sets the time for each member to gather the relevant information on the subject of the issue. The importance of this subject is already discussed that it makes the subject limit the preparation of the issues at hand. For distributive negotiations, this point is a s pecial one. This is since it makes the preparing partners have a wide variety of their options. For integrated bargains, the process is not as useful as it engages the formal partners in a wit engagement that will engage in unproductive negotiations. A meeting should start at the stipulated time on and
Monday, November 18, 2019
Currency Overlay Techniques and Perspectives - Essay Example What are the advantages and disadvantages, or more specifically, the risks and rewards, of several common currency overlay schemes? In Ã¢â¬Å"Mean/Variance Analysis of Currency OverlaysÃ¢â¬ by Philippe Jorion, three of the four most common strategies are discussed and analyzed. These are 1) joint, or unit, currency management, its goal to optimize or hedge the entirety of the underlying assets, be they stocks, bonds, or currencies themselves; 2) partial optimization over the currencies, given a pre-determined position in the core portfolio; and 3) a separate optimization over currencies. In unit or joint hedging, it is assumed that Ã¢â¬Å"the manager has expertise in many asset classes and can structure a portfolio to account for correlations between assets and currencies,Ã¢â¬ (Jorion, 1994). Partial optimization manages currencies Ã¢â¬Å"separately from the core portfolio, but the manager still controls total portfolio risk.Ã¢â¬ Employing the method of separate optimization means to manage the currencies Ã¢â¬Å"completely independently of the rest of the portfolio,Ã¢â¬ even going so far as to measure their performance against a separate benchmark or hire a separate currency overlay manager to deal with this part of the portfolio as opposed to the equity manager. In the unit hedging approach, the tools work together to maximize the performance in light of the unique composition of the portfolio. Clearly, if done properly, this is the optimal approach.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Effective Communication In Workplaces Effective communication has its own benefits in the workplace. Effective communication from managers to employees will result in the employees doing their job well. A good management style together with a positive communication approach will be quite effective in the workplace and will lead to better understanding between the employee and manager. For an organization to be successful communication should happen both internally and externally. Internal communication: between management and employees. External communication: this takes place between staff and clients. Let us consider Vodafone as a case study to illustrate the effective communication skills Internal Communication: this takes place inside the organization between the employees and management. Here the employees act as stakeholders. This communication may take place in any of the forms listed below: Vertically: this the top down approach which happens from the senior employees to juniors associates. The ultimate goal here is to improve the performance of tasks and make the junior employees understand the companys priorities and requirements. Horizontally: this takes places between various teams and across departments. The goal here is to make sure roles are effectively carried out and tasks completed. Intranet with restricted access to people within the business is a great tool for promoting better communication. External communication :this takes place with customers. Vodafone has laid a principle for communication as We will communicate openly and transparently with all of our stakeholders within the bounds of commercial confidentiality. Vodafone believes that this will reduce the barriers to communication. It makes sure that its messages are conveyed both verbally and non verbally. For verbal communication the company has set contact centers so that the staff can be in direct contact with the customers and further giving an opportunity for its staff to talk to the customers about the issues. Non verbal communication can take place through various methods such as advertisements in television, newspapers and other media, the Vodafone logo. This also acts as a method of determining the position of the brand. Further methods of non verbal communication include SMS to contact certain customers. Sales information can be reached out to customers through literature in the Vodafone shops. The many forms of communication through which Vodafone reaches out to its customers are as below: Promotion and sales material- Vodafone makes sure that the advertising material is correct and follows its Business principles. This also helps the information reaches out responsibly to its stakeholders together with promoting its products and services. Awareness and Information: Vodafone promoted the use of mobile phones responsibly in the cars. It took the complex material and translated the information in easy to understand form and made the public aware of the new law and appropriate use of phones in the car. Explanation and guidance: mobile phones have health effects on human beings. But the latest scientific research has something new and Vodafone needs to convey these findings clearly to the customers. Motivation to dedicate Employees A well motivated staff is a key to a productive and pleasant environment in a workplace. Motivating the employees must be one of the key responsibilities of a manager. An effective management and leadership reflect through effective motivation of employees in the workplace. Understanding the human nature is a key to effective employee motivation. The key to performance improvement in an organization is motivation. Motivation is very essential for any business to survive and excel. Motivation is a skill and must be learnt. Performance can be defined as a function of ability and motivation as below Job performance= function (ability)(motivation) Ability depends on education and training. Motivation has the following seven strategies through which it can be initiated: Fair treatment of people Positive and high expectations Discipline Satisfying the needs of the employees Setting goals at work To restructure the jobs Set rewards and recognition for performance Every organization has its own ways to motivate the employees to ensure that goals and targets are reached . Obstacles to Effective Performance The main obstacles to effective performance in an organization are as follows: Culture Change Conflict Culture Culture is related to beliefs, values and customary ways of doing things. The main reason for employees leaving the company is cultural mismatch. According to the present culture employees are required to have a clear understanding of short term and long term goals. The employees are required to have a shared vision and values as well as being productive and motivated. The organizational culture is determined by the leadership style and practices in an organization and hence plays an important role especially during acquisitions and mergers. Every organization has a set of values and beliefs. When an employee is exposed to a new culture, the individual goes through a state known as culture shock. When the companies merge the employees from the non dominant company need to adapt themselves to the new culture of the dominant company. Let us consider Barclay Plc for instance. Barclay acquired Lehman Brothers and one of the major issues for Barclay after this acquisition is to take into consideration the two different cultures in these two companies. Most of the employees of Lehman Brothers have left Barclay and a few did not join Barclay. This makes it clear that the employees are not ready to adapt to the new values, leadership styles, beliefs and practices of the Barclay culture. One of the biggest challenges to the management at Barclay is to make employees accept the new culture. The change in culture ultimately has an effect on the motivation level of the employees, their commitment to the organization and their engagement in work. Another consequence of an acquisition is that the individuals from the non dominant organization will feel like loss of identity and the others will have a superior feeling. This will ultimately affect the company achieve its goals and objectives. Another major issue of culture when the two organizations were merged is it will divert the attention of the employees and make the less productive. The attention of employees will be diverted to issues such as job security , feeling of discomfort working with new employees. Job security is the main issue as there will be duplication of departments and to manage the staff, the organization can reduce the manpower. The job profiles may be redesigned which may have an impact on the performance of the employees. The employees motivation, attitude and performance are determined by the culture. Motivation and culture go hand in hand. More an employee is motivated; the culture will be healthier. The key factor to be dealt in any organization is motivation. If an employee is not motivated properly then the employee will have problem accepting the new culture which will impact the individuals ability to do the job effectively and efficiently. The company should have flexible culture if a decision of acquisition is taken. This will allow the new employees to adjust to the new culture. Culture reflects the style of management and leadership. A slight change in the values, leadership style and ideas will help the new employees adjust to the new environment. This is not easy task, but since Barclays has taken a decision of merger it should be ready to consider changes in its culture and leadership style. Change Except for change nothing is constant in this world. Every activity in an organization results in some change. It can have a positive or negative effect depending on the communication made through change. The acquisition of Barclay and Lehman Brothers bought together a huge change in both organizations. New strategies and policies, procedures and work environment were created for work in both organizations. Change should involve people and not be imposed on people. Preparing the employees of an organization for change is a very vital task and it is the responsibility of the management to do this. This can be done through various methods such as through oral communication, via training programs or through counseling. The major reason for the Lehman employees leaving Barclays when the two organizations were merged is that the change was not managed properly. The key principles needed when planning to manage change are as follows: Every person reacts to change differently. Each person is different and has its own perceptions and preferences. A few people always look forward to change and new things and it easy to handle them. But it is a very difficult to handle people who always like things the way they were. These kind of people will experience stress and dissatisfaction and negative attitude towards their counterparts preferences. Every person has his own needs and priorities A few people work just for money but a few for the self and social identification. Change can be managed effectively by designing jobs in a better way through job redesign, job rotation management etc. Managing expectations realistically The organization should make clear to its employees that it cannot make everyone happy at the same time and this should be communicated effectively and realistically. The relation between expectations and reality is very important. The management should do the tasks listed below in order to manage change effectively: The management should inspire people and set certain objectives, goals and values for the organization It should set up a communication network such as face to face interaction so that new ideas and policies can be easily communicated. If there are any obstacles in the way of communication then those should be removed as this will help people accept change. Change can be made inevitable by promotions, recruitments and rewards. Conflicts When Barclays merges with Lehman conflicts were natural to arise as people from two different cultures and two different companies were merging. Starting with small disputes, conflicts may reach to higher levels which will ultimately affect the organization. Since the culture of both organizations is different each will have its own ideas, strategies, perspectives and goals. The different types of conflict that may arise when people of two different cultures merge are as follows: Conflict with boss Since the manager has a more experience and bigger perspective it will not be good to encounter conflict with the boss. In order to avoid such a conflict it is better not to question his authority and any ideas and views should be presented in the form of suggestions. Conflict with colleagues Different point of view will lead to conflict between employees. This can be done resolved through proper communication. Conflicts with the subordinates Conflicts can be handles effectively by one of the following ways: Each person should be given freedom to express their views. Conflicts can be sorted to a greater level by identifying positive minded people. Not everyone may have a broad vision as ours. So communicating and discussing our vision will help keep conflicts away. Changing nature of Modern Work Organizations  There many factors that contribute to the changing nature of work at organization, but the two main factors are: Current market scenario requires organizations to be more competitive and customer focused, hence there is an increased pressure on the organization The breakthrough in IT and communication is another factor. For example mobile and internet have made work to be separated from time and space. Organizations have changed their focus and their main principles are: Defining vision and values from the consumers perspective Creating a value chain i.e., defining activities and process that add value to customers and link them Remove activities that add no value to the organization. Reducing inefficiencies in the tasks in an organization. These principles have added value to the organization enabling them to respond rapidly to customers needs and supporting change and encouraging innovation. Conclusion The base of any organization depends on the policy, the values, the vision, the philosophy and goals set by the management. These act as the driving force for the organizational culture. Culture in a workplace determines the leadership style, the type of communication and group dynamics within the organization. The employees in the organization perceive the culture as a quality essential at work which has an impact on the degree of the employees motivation. This ultimately affects the performance, personal growth and self development which ultimately affect the organization from achieving its goals. The above discussed concepts such as communication, motivation, culture etc, make up only a small part of the theories of organizational behavior and theory. The success of any organization is determined by the application of the concepts of organizational behavior in the organization. The best way to handle conflicts in a workplace is to address them through discussions and debates. Conflict can have a positive effect within the organization if it is addressed effectively. A successful manager is one who takes time to address and deal with the conflict. This in turn will lead to a healthy and diverse work environment.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Reactions to Industrialism in Frankenstein and The Communist Manifesto Ã Ã Ã The radical changes of the nineteenth century were unlike any the world had seen before. A sense of these changes were felt by all in many aspects; not just politically, but in social and cultural means as well. When Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was published in 1831, it was clear that many general elements of the romantic era were well reflected. Similarly, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels' The Communist Manifesto appeared in 1848, a time of great national political revolutions throughout Europe. While textually these historic nineteenth century texts have little in common, it is clear however that they both are strong reactions to previous movements of European society. Underlying Shelley's Frankenstein are strong uses of romanticism, whereas The Communist Manifesto is undoubtedly opposing the consequences of the industrial revolution in Europe; both reactions of the past, yet effective in starkly different ways. Ã Frankenstein, like other English Romantics, placed great emphasis on the power of nature. The Arve Ravine, and the Valley of Chamounix exemplify the harmony and beautiful serenity of nature, and add to the romantic quality of the novel while sharply contrasting with the chaos of Victor's troubled mind. The Romantic movement can be seen as a protest against the rapid industrialization that was occurring in England at the time of Frankenstein's publication. While many interpretations are plausible, the novel depicts the fear that technology (and the human obsession with technology) would ultimately prove disastrous. The characters of Walton and Frankenstein are shaped by Romantic idealism, as manifested in their ... ...r a classless, productive, industrial society that was beneficial to all, the mere recognition of strength in numbers and class solidarity were fundamentally effective and paved the way not only for future governments but for future laborers. Ã Ã Works Cited Ã Lowe-Evans, Mary.Ã Frankenstein: Mary Shelly's Wedding Guest. New York:Ã Twayne Publishers, 1993. Ã Marx, Karl. Communist Manifesto. Birth of the Communist Manifesto. Ed. Dirk J. Ã Ã Struik. New York: International, 1971. 85-125. Ã Oates, Joyce Carol.Ã "Frankenstein: Creation as Catastrophe." Mary Shelly's Frankenstein.Ã Ed. Harold Bloom.Ã New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Ã Shelly, Mary.Ã Frankenstein: Or the Modern Prometheus.Ã New York: Penguin Books, 1978. Ã Tropp, Martin.Ã Mary Shelly's Monster.Ã Boston:Ã Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Ã
Monday, November 11, 2019
CASE 2-5 Coping with Corruption in Trading with China Corruption is on the rise in China, where the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s press frequently has detailed cases of corruption and of campaigns to crack down on it. The articles primarily have focused on domestic economic crimes among Chinese citizens, and on local of? cials who have been ? red or assessed other penalties. Indeed, China has been rated by Transparency International as number 59 of the 102 countries the German organization rates on its Ã¢â¬Å"Corruption Perception Index. Ã¢â¬ 1 Finland is rated the least corrupt at number 1, the United States at 16, and Bangladesh the most corrupt at number 102.CorruptionÃ¢â¬â¢s long arm now is reaching out to touch ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign business community. Traders, trade consultants, and analysts have said that foreign ? rms are vulnerable to a variety of corrupt practices. Although some of these ? rms said they had no experience with corruption in the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China (PRC ), the majority said they increasingly were asked to make payments to improve business, engage in black-market trade of import and export licenses, bribe of? cials to push goods through customs or the Commodity Inspection Bureau, or engage in collusion to beat the system.The Hong Kong Independent Commission Against Corruption reports that outright bribes as well as gifts or payment to establish guanxi, or Ã¢â¬Å"connections,Ã¢â¬ average 3 to 5 percent of operating costs in the PRC, or $3 billion to $5 billion of the $100 billion of foreign investments that have been made there. The most common corrupt practices confronting foreign companies in China are examined here. ANGLING FOR CASH MNCs also are asked sometimes to sponsor overseas education for children of trading of? cials. One person told a Chinese source that an MNC paid for that individualÃ¢â¬â¢s U.S. $1,500-a-month apartment, as well as a car, university education, and expenses. Firms ? nd direct requests for cash payme ntsÃ¢â¬âundeniably illegalÃ¢â¬âthe most dif? cult. One well-placed source said that a major trader, eager for buyers in the face of an international market glut, had fallen into regularly paying large kickbacks into the Honduran, U. S. , and Swiss accounts of of? cials at a PRC foreign trade corporation. Refusing to make payments may not only hurt sales, it can also be terrifying. A U. S. ?rm was one of several bidders for a large sale; a Chinese of? ial demanded the MNC pay a 3 percent kickback. When the company representative refused, the of? cial threatened: Ã¢â¬Å"You had better not say anything about this. You still have to do business in China, and stay in hotels here. Ã¢â¬ Not surprisingly, the U. S. company lost the deal. Traders of certain commodities may be tempted to purchase on the black market those import and export licenses that are dif? cult to obtain legally. A fairly disorganized underground market, for instance, exists for licenses to export China-made ga rments to the United States.Some branches of the Commodity Inspection Bureau (CIB) also have posed problems for some traders. Abuses have emerged in the CIB since it started inspecting imports in 1987. A Japanese company, for instance, informed CIB of? cials of its intention to bring heavy industrial items into ChinaÃ¢â¬âitems that had met Japanese and U. S. standards. The of? cials responded that they planned to dismantle the products on arrival for inspection purposes. The problem was resolved only after the ? rm invited the of? cials to visit Japan. Some traders get around such problems by purchasing inspection certi? ates on the black market. According to press accounts, these forms, complete with signatures and seals, can be bought for roughly U. S. $200. Some claim that, for the appropriate compensation, customs of? cials in a southern province are very willing to reduce the dutiable value of imports as much as 50 percent. Because the savings can far exceed transport costs, some imports that would logically enter China through a northern port are redirected through the southern province. PAYING TO IMPROVE BUSINESS Foreign traders make several types of payments to facilitate sales in China.The most common methods used are trips abroad. Chinese of? cials, who rarely have a chance to visit overseas, often prefer foreign travel to cash or gifts. (This was especially true when few PRC of? cials had been abroad. ) As a result, traders report that dangling foreign trips in front of their PRC clients has become a regular part of negotiating large trade deals that involve products with a technological component. Ã¢â¬Å"Foreign travel is always the ? rst inducement we offer,Ã¢â¬ said an executive involved in machinery trade. In most cases, traders built these costs into the productÃ¢â¬â¢s sale price.Some trips are Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable and bona ? de expenditures directly related to the promotion, demonstration, or explanation of products and services, or the e xecution of a contract with a foreign government agency. Ã¢â¬ But other trips, when of? cials on foreign junkets are offered large per diems and arenÃ¢â¬â¢t invited speci? cally to gain technical knowledge, may be another matter. Foreign travel isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always an inducementÃ¢â¬âit also can be extorted. In one case, a PRC bank branch refused to issue a letter of credit for a machinery import deal. The Chinese customer suggested that the foreign trader invite the bank of? ial on an overseas inspection tour. Once the invitation was extended, the bank issued the letter of credit. QUESTIONS 1. List all the different types of bribes, payments, or favors represented in this case and say why each is either legal or illegal. 2. For those practices that you say are illegal, classify each as lubrication, extortion, or subornation, and tell why. 3. Which of the payments, favors, or bribes are illegal under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)? 4. Assuming that the FCPA did not e xist, what is the ethical response to each of the payments, favors, or bribes you have See www. transparency. org for more details about their 2002 index. 572 Cases 2 The Cultural Environment of Global Markets you think bribery will become less prevalent in markets like China? 573 identi? ed? Read the section titled Ã¢â¬Å"Ethically and Socially Responsible DecisionsÃ¢â¬ in Chapter 3 as a guide to assist you in your decision. 5. Now that the OECD has approved an FCPA-like treaty to ban commercial bribery by ? rms in member countries, do 6. List alternatives to paying bribes in international markets and discuss the pluses and minuses of each.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Size Of Government Example The Size Of Government Ã¢â¬â Coursework Example The Size of Government The Size of Government The government of any Nation is has a responsibility of solving problems involving the citizens of the same nation including reduction of poverty, ensuring safety and protection of the citizens from preventable harm, protecting civil liberties and civil rights, creating equal chances of the citizens to succeed. Just like any other institution, there is need for the government to expand in order to much the population of the subjects and be able to offer them optimum services (Cropf, 2008). The society is not made up of isolated individuals who are independently struggling for survival, but a closely woven community in which each one depends on the other. It is without doubt that there is a significant gap between the wealthy and the middle class and the poor in the American society. As such, the conservative view of allowing the government to stay away from the economy and creating a free market would increase this gap even further as it will allow the rich to prey further on the poor. In such a setting, the poor may not be exposed to as many opportunities for development as would the rich. Failure to regulate large corporations would lead to engagement in all forms of practices that would maximize profit at the expenses of the poor employees and consumers (Cropf, 2008). As such, taxation of the wealthy would create an equal opportunity for development and personal growth for the poor in the form of increased job opportunities, cheaper healthcare, and cheaper education. Contrary to the view that a large government burdens the American people, such a government ensures equal distribution of resources to different departments and promotes commitment towards meeting the numerous needs of the citizens while singling out each of the needs (Cropf, 2008).ReferenceCropf, R. A. (2008). American Public Administration: Public Service for the 21st Century (1st ed.). New York: Pearson Longman.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Scopes Trial began as a lighthearted plot by a small group of men looking to bring attention to the town of Dayton, Tennessee, but it quickly spiraled into one of the most debated, heated and famous trials of the twentieth century. It was a trial that had been in the making since Charles Darwin first proposed the theory of evolution. It was a battle between the modernists and the traditionalists. Soon began the trial that would go down in history to become known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Great Monkey TrialÃ¢â¬ (Pierce 1), (Linder 1) Charles Darwin had stirred great controversy with his theory of evolution that he presented in 1858. His theory about human evolving from monkeys sparked arguments between scientists and religious leader. Many people thought it to go against the Adam and Eve story in the Bible. Included with those people who did not agree with Darwin were Fundamentalists. (McGowen 19) Fundamentalism was started by American Christians who thought that the Bible had to be true. During the 1920s, Fundamentalists were a major force in American religion and soon began attacking the teachings of evolution in school. In January of 1925, John Butler, Tennessee House of Representatives member introduced a bill that made it illegal to, Ã¢â¬Å"teach any theory that denies the story of the divine creation of man as taught in the Bible.Ã¢â¬ (Pierce 2) The Butler Act was passes into law by Governor Austin Peay, although it was not expected to be enforced. However, in April of 1925, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) offered its services of legal and financial assistance to any teacher who would test the law. (Pierce 2), (McGowen 31) Then on May 5th, 1925, George Rappalyea, manager of an iron company on Dayton, Walter White, the superintendent of schools in Rhea County, and Sue Hicks, a lawyer in the town, were sitting in the local drugstore and discussing the new law that was passed. The gentlemen continue to argue their opinions on evolution w... Free Essays on The Scopes Trial Free Essays on The Scopes Trial The Scopes Trial began as a lighthearted plot by a small group of men looking to bring attention to the town of Dayton, Tennessee, but it quickly spiraled into one of the most debated, heated and famous trials of the twentieth century. It was a trial that had been in the making since Charles Darwin first proposed the theory of evolution. It was a battle between the modernists and the traditionalists. Soon began the trial that would go down in history to become known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Great Monkey TrialÃ¢â¬ (Pierce 1), (Linder 1) Charles Darwin had stirred great controversy with his theory of evolution that he presented in 1858. His theory about human evolving from monkeys sparked arguments between scientists and religious leader. Many people thought it to go against the Adam and Eve story in the Bible. Included with those people who did not agree with Darwin were Fundamentalists. (McGowen 19) Fundamentalism was started by American Christians who thought that the Bible had to be true. During the 1920s, Fundamentalists were a major force in American religion and soon began attacking the teachings of evolution in school. In January of 1925, John Butler, Tennessee House of Representatives member introduced a bill that made it illegal to, Ã¢â¬Å"teach any theory that denies the story of the divine creation of man as taught in the Bible.Ã¢â¬ (Pierce 2) The Butler Act was passes into law by Governor Austin Peay, although it was not expected to be enforced. However, in April of 1925, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) offered its services of legal and financial assistance to any teacher who would test the law. (Pierce 2), (McGowen 31) Then on May 5th, 1925, George Rappalyea, manager of an iron company on Dayton, Walter White, the superintendent of schools in Rhea County, and Sue Hicks, a lawyer in the town, were sitting in the local drugstore and discussing the new law that was passed. The gentlemen continue to argue their opinions on evolution w...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Discussion Points about Critical Gender Studies readings - Essay Example Discussion Points about Critical Gender Studies readings Globalization in the face of this bookÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion has brought about a whole new change of order in the society and provided more opportunities to those who have been marginalized for so long (Lowe 120). The opening of the world has transformed the role of women as it makes their voice known as well as empowers them. This may not seem such a big deal compared to other positive effects of globalization such as making the United States, not the super power nation it has always been as more countries such as China and Japan grow economically and militarily at a high rate and threaten the position of US but it is a big deal to these groups of individuals (Lowe 122). Women in the developing nations in Africa and Asia has always been tied down by oppressive cultures but with globalization, these cultures are starting to be questioned and even disbanded as an interchange of cultures from all over the world infiltrates these nations. This has therefore brought a social revolution and new meaning to feminism as the roles of women and men not only intertwine by they are even reversed in some cases all based on cultural changes brought about by globalization (Lowe 123). The biggest question that however lingers is whether these changes will continue with their positivity and expansion and to what extent? Will they lead to negative effects and impacts to societies in the long run or are they truly a blessing and will remain that way?
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Comm219 - Essay Example This is because it discusses issues dealing with leadership in indigenous societies, as well as marginalization of women in the leadership institutions. Overall, the magazine targets the entire population of British Colombia. This magazine presents distinctive articles because, for every story, there is an independent either cultural or political analysis depending on the topic. Additionally, it allows aggressive discussion by the readers with every story, which gives a platform for readers to evaluate and analyze the story based on their opinions and perceptions. For the sake of user interaction, the magazine is structured into several sections that allow easy and quick access to information that the reader may be looking for. For example, it is divided into news, culture, opinion, mediacheck, national, and solutions. So if a reader wants stories concerning solutions to societal challenges such as environment, one just clicks on solutions and select a story. Further, the magazine has created a platform for comments where readers can give their opinion on every story. Finally, the stories are accompanied with pictures for better understanding and interaction. The story I choose is titled For Kids, the Meal Is the Message. This story is remarkable because of the reaction it ignites from the audience, as well the presentation that uses humor to bring out reality and serious issue, which makes it interesting to read. Apart from the use of illustrations, the story refers to several sources and data to support the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, and this is what I would like to emulate in my writing. Another aspect is that the story addresses a specific audience while educating, informing, and giving solutions at the same
35 Things to Do for Your Career by 35 With the average life expectancy being 70 years for men and 74 years for women, it would be good ...
Snowboarding in the United States Snowboarding has seemingly become one of the most popular sports in the United States, especially afte...
'This first light is by world-wide covenant a frigh ecstasying twenty-four hours. I am non certainly t don I assent. If I were ...
The role of men in The house of the Spirits and in Chronicle of a Death Foretold - Essay Example Truth be told in both of these novels, m...