Saturday, August 31, 2019

I Should Pass This Class Because Essay

I Need to pass my Eng 096 writing in order for me to move on to the next level of my education. I am doing computer science as a major at a college, and in order for me to get into the program I need to pass english 101 and college level math, so I made an effort this summer and took a placement test,which I placed into english 096 writing class.This class is hard to learn,its also expensive, and it takes a lot of time and needs a lot of attention before you can pass it. First let me start by saying, this class is so hard for me, because i haven’t been in school for the past 10 years.And also I forgot about all the stuff I learned when I was in highschool, so this is like a fresh start for me. I Am doing my best to pass this class by Paying attention when the instructor is teaching because i remember in high school my teacher told me the only way you can pass class is based on three things. by paying attention, coming to class on time,and doing all homework on time. Secondly I didn’t know school could be so expensive until i started this class. The tuition alone is a lot of money plus the books and the time that you spend in class are all money that am losing because my class starts at 7:00 pm every Monday and my job was suppose to end at 10:00pm on Mondays, but I cut some of my working hours so I can make it to class on time. Lastly I spend at least two hours a day out my very busy shedule life to do some studies for this class. During this time I lock myself in a room by myself so I can concentrate because I don’t want to go to school without my homework being done or without being ready to take in the new stuff. With all the effort I put in this class, I think I should pass this class because if i don’t it will be a big loss for me, I wouldn’t be able to pursuit my goal of becoming a computer scientist, I would lose a lot of money, and lastly all the time I put in will just be a waste of time.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Blood Bank Management

Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop a blood management information system to assist in the management of blood donor records and ease/or control the distribution of blood in various parts of the country basing on the hospital demands. Without quick and timely access to donor records, creating market strategies for blood donation, lobbying and sensitization of blood donors becomes very difficult. The blood management information system offers functionalities to quick access to donor records collected from various parts of the country.It enables monitoring of the results and performance of the blood donation activity such that relevant and measurable objectives of the organization can be checked. It provides to management timely, confidential and secure medical reports that facilitates planning and decision making and hence improved medical service delivery. The reports generated by the system give answers to most of the challenges management faces as far as blood donor r ecords are concerned. Chapter 1 1. 0 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background to the StudyBlood Donor Recruitment (BDR) is the process of drawing blood from a voluntary Blood Donor (BD) for future blood transfusion, Wikipedia (2006). In Uganda, blood collection, safety and management is an activity that is carried out by Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) in partnership with Uganda Blood Transfusion (UBTS). Founded in 1939, URCS is part of the world wide Red Cross Humanitarian Movement whose mission is to mobilize the power of humanity for improving the lives of the vulnerable in Uganda, Muller (2001).URCS fulfills this mission while adhering to the principles of impartiality, neutrality, independence, unity, universality and voluntary service for the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement. It operates throughout Uganda with 45 branch offices. Besides providing adequate supply of blood for transfusion, URCS is involved in the first aid services, road safety, tracing, disaster mitigation/preparedness, mob ilization for routine immunization, HIV homecare, youth empowerment and Community based HealthCare (CBHC).URCS had a manual system using paper cards to recruit BDs, collect/keep blood donor records and disseminate results to BDs who are scattered throughout the country. The paper card system (PCS) used to specifically capture personal data and medical history of the BDs. This information would be used in identifying/locating existing BDs, carrying out pre- donation counseling and taking blood results. Unauthorized persons however, easily accessed the paper system and hence making it impossible to keep secrecy and confidentiality expected of medical records.The security of the medical records was also not inadequate as any person could easily access them. Lukande (2003), states that such a system is time consuming, prone to errors of entry and analysis resulting from the fatigue of the users. The PCS at URCS had lead to accumulation of physical paper cards due to increasing number of blood donors, a situation that frustrated the system users because of the delays and at times failure to access historical records. The safe blood policy was lacking at URCS because the PCS could not cater for the key attributes of the policy.Gerard (2002), states that the main principles upon which the safe blood policy is based on are the informed consent, confidentiality and secrecy of the BDs. The Ethiopian Red Cross Society publication, Development in the 1990 states that information from blood donors should be completely confidential and if this is not assured, names of the blood donors should not be recorded at all and/or an alternative record identification should be used. Full implementation of the safe blood policy has called the use of information technology (IT) in providing working solution to the identified challenges.The associated problems with the PCS included delays in accessing historical records, inconsistencies and errors in data entry that stem right from acqu isition of data from the blood donors because the exercise is of routine nature and very tedious to the system users. The automation of the system using modern IT has improved the quality of service. Secondly, with the use of IT, now relevant and timely blood donor reports can easily be generated and hence facilitating planning and decision-making.Scolamiero (2000), recommends blood donor services automated information system as a solution to routinely collected, accurate and readily available information in blood transfusion services. It is also important to note that the impact of information technology on organizations is increasing as new technologies evolve and existing ones expand. According to Clifton (1995), nearly all business executives say that information technology is vital to their business and that they use IT extensively.Certainly business executives main concern is planning, coordination and decision-making, therefore, the role of IT in enhancing management of blood donor records is of major importance. In all, the computerization of blood donor PCS at URCS came at the ripe time given the background to the situation. This is more so because the demand for safe blood in Uganda has increased due to soaring increase in total population. Therefore, modern means to manage the PCS using IT had to take route. 1. 3 General ObjectiveThe main objective of the study was to create electronic blood donor management information system in order to assist in the management of blood donor records, planning and share information in a more confidential, convenient and secure way using modern technology. [pic] 1. 3. 1 Specific Objectives To conduct a study on blood donor management To design an electronic blood donor management system To validate the design using a prototype 1. 4 Scope The study geographically limited itself at the URCS blood donation/collection centers.It focused more on the acquisition, distribution and management of blood units for BDR activit ies. The study specially emphasized the creation and implementation of an electronic management information system that automated blood donor data acquisition and dissemination of results. This in turn will ease and speeds up the planning, decision-making process because of the timely, secure, confidential and reliable reports. 1. 5 Significance of the Study This study is important to URCS and the blood donors because it aimed at addressing problems of security, secrecy and confidentiality of blood donor records.It also strived to check the delays, errors, inconsistencies in medical records and timely access to historical records all of which had far fetched impact on planning and decision-making. The study resulted into the following benefits: It has eased the control and distribution of blood in various parts of the country basing on the hospital demands. URCS can now create market strategies for blood donation, lobbying and sensitization of the blood donors. Automated data acquis ition and quick access to medical records by the legal users of the system will be assured. [pic]It has eased the monitoring of the results and performance of the blood donation activity and hence relevant and measurable objectives of URCS are checked. It will continue to improve on the planning and decision-making process by providing to management timely, secure and confidential medical reports related to blood donation. It will also improve medical service delivery due to timely and easy generation of management reports by the relevant entities. The study will benefit the URCS management, who will find it easy to strategically plan, coordinate and take decisions concerning BDR activities.URCS counsellors on the other hand will be able to keep confidentiality of the donor’s results and disseminate blood results to donors with ease. Meanwhile that is the case, the automation of the data collection process will simplify the work of the data clerks. Equally important, the bloo d donormmobilizes will be have strong grounds for laying sensitization strategies between regions thatmyield more blood units and those with less. The study also has formed further environment of knowledge for students who may wish to take research in blood donor management. 2. Blood Donor Systems: Challenges and Successes The blood donation service involve a series of interdependent operations such as donor registration, donor screening/evaluation, blood collection, blood screening, inventory management and blood dissemination. Most of the popular existing blood information systems in the western world today are mainly online systems. The systems interfaces do not meet fully the blood safe policy described in this study and as such not suitable for illiterate population. Most blood donors in Uganda are rural based where online systems ay not be the best. The level of computer literate among the blood donors in Uganda is growing because the majority of them are school students. The main challenge remains customizing interfaces that are suitable for capturing basic donor information. Some of the attributes on the interfaces used in the western world such as state and province are not applicable in Uganda. Tripura blood donor information system is a good example of the blood donorsystem that is not suitable for Uganda. Also some key attributes such as age and sessions in [pic]Uganda are lacking on most the interfaces viewed. The interfaces also are not user-friendly as there are many links within the system that can easily confuse the system users and hence leading to data entry errors and boredom. At the Macau blood Transfusion Centre, system Integrado de Bancos de Sangue (SIBAS) works as its solution of computerized blood bank information system. SIBAS complies with the client/server infrastructure, as does its client, and provides an integrated environment for those isolated but interdependent operation in the blood center.With the introduction of the SIBAS t he blood service at Macau has been enhance in the following aspect. Operational efficiency- the processing time has been shortened in that blood donors need not fill in many regular items. On the other hand, the steps for donor cards are under full control and hence leading to donor satisfaction and confidence. There is also improved information consistency and validity. The Indian case study of Prathma Blood Center, Gupta (2004), promises insights into the integration of IS/IT in management of blood records.The Prathma Blood Center is a quest for modernizing blood banking. The entire function from blood donation to its testing and separation, storage, issue and usage have been integrated through a custom designed enterprise resource planning (ERP) software that minimizes human intervention and making it less error prone. The implementation of ERP in blood bank in India has registered many successes in medical data such as security, confidentiality, secrecy and quick retrieval of hi storical records all of which were challenges at URCS blood center.However, full automation of all blood donation activities like the case cannot be done in Uganda due to limited resources. It requires transition, as it is resource constraining in terms of IT, other equipments and human resources. 2. 3 Blood Donor Systems: Challenges and Successes The blood donation service involve a series of interdependent operations such as donor registration, donor screening/evaluation, blood collection, blood screening, inventory management and blood dissemination. Most of the popular existing blood information systems in the western world today are mainly online systems.The systems interfaces do not meet fully the blood safe policy described in this study and as such not suitable for illiterate population. Most blood donors in Uganda are rural based where online systems may not be the best. The level of computer literate among the blood donors in Uganda is growing because the majority of them are school students. The main challenge remains customizing interfaces that are suitable for capturing basic donor information. Some of the attributes on the interfaces used in the western world such as state and province are not applicable in Uganda.Tripura blood donor information system is a good example of the blood donor system that is not suitable for Uganda. Also some key attributes such as age and sessions in Uganda are lacking on most the interfaces viewed. The interfaces also are not user-friendly as there are many links within the system that can easily confuse the system users and hence leading to data entry errors and boredom. At the Macau blood Transfusion Centre, system Integrado de Bancos de Sangue (SIBAS) works as its solution of computerized blood bank information system.SIBAS complies with the client/server infrastructure, as does its client, and provides an integrated environment for those isolated but interdependent operation in the blood center. With the introdu ction of the SIBAS the blood service at Macau has been enhance in the following aspect. Operational efficiency- the processing time has been shortened in that blood donors need not fill in many regular items. On the other hand, the steps for donor cards are under full control and hence leading to donor satisfaction and confidence.There is also improved information consistency and validity. The Indian case study of Prathma Blood Center, Gupta (2004), promises insights into the integration of IS/IT in management of blood records. The Prathma Blood Center is a quest for modernizing blood banking. The entire function from blood donation to its testing and separation, storage, issue and usage have been integrated through a custom designed enterprise resource planning (ERP) software that minimizes human intervention and making it less error prone.The implementation of ERP in blood bank in India has registered many successes in medical data such as security, confidentiality, secrecy and qu ick retrieval of historical records all of which were challenges at URCS blood center. However, full automation of all blood donation activities like the case cannot be done in Uganda due to limited resources. It requires transition, as it is resource constraining in terms of IT, other equipments and human resources. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 4. 1 Introduction Following the literature review, background information and correlative knowledge regarding this research project follows.In the first part of this chapter, the demand and requirements of the proposed system are discussed and analyzed through dataflow diagrams, the entity relations model and the data dictionary. According to this analysis, the specification of the system is defined. This provides the foundation for chapter 5 (Implementation and Testing). This chapter presents the various design techniques and processes available for building web based applications. It explains the design technique chosen, showing its advanta ges and disadvantages. 4. 2 A different approach for designing web based applicationsTraditionally, software has been broadly classified into different categories. Some of these categories include real-time software, personal computer software, artificial intelligence software and business software. Web-based systems and applications (WebApps) such as web sites and information processing applications that reside on the Internet or an intranet, require a somewhat different method of development than these other categories of computer software (Pressman, 2000) [xx]. This is because web based systems involve a mixture of print publishing, software development, marketing, computing, internal communications, external elations, art and technology. WebApps are network intensive,content driven, continuously evolving applications. They usually have a short development time, need strong security measures, and have to be aesthetically pleasing. In addition, the population of users is usually d iverse. These factors all make special demands on requirements elicitation and modelling. 4. 3 Requirements and Analysis The requirement analysis stage of a software engineering project involves collecting and analyzing information about the part of the organization that is supported by the application.This information is then used to identify the users' requirement of the new system (Conolly et al, 2002) [xx]. Identifying the required functionality of the system is very important as a system with incomplete functionality may lead to it being rejected. A description of the aim of the project is given here along with details of the functional and non-functional requirements for the system. The test sheets for evaluating the completed system are also presented. [pic] 4. 3. 1 RequirementsThe requirements of the Web-based management information system are to develop: †¢ a web based front end for entering donated blood details including the donor, his/her blood group, sex, age, and status of the donated blood †¢ a web based front end for searching the information relating to a given donor or a given blood group; †¢ a facility to still enter donor and donated blood information via Endnote and also maintain the Endnote database using those details entered via the web front end and †¢ a facility to produce summary information of donor and donated blood particulars and any other related activities. . 3. 2 Functional Requirements In this research project we aim at developing a system which should improve on the current one with a lot of functionalities and therefore the Major target or goal here is to: †¢ to develop a blood donor database that can support the five above mention sub- databases that is to say; DonorDB, Donation DB, DiseaseDB, Transfusion DB and Statistical DB †¢ to develop a client interface that allows privileged users to carry out tasks such as inserting or modifying and deleting data in the database; to develop a searching functionality in order to allow normal and privileged users to search the details of a given donor, blood group, stakeholder and if necessary a type of disease common which causes one to need the donated blood †¢ to fully integrate the Web-based management information system to the World- Wide-Web and hence allow access from any Internet networked terminal and Web browser around the world; to develop a facility that can export details entered via the web front end to Endnote as well as import and confidential detail from the Endnote Database; †¢ to develop a functionality that produces summary information of required data to enhance decision making; †¢ to embed high security features in the Web DBMS to provide privacy, integrity; †¢ to allow privileged users to maintain the Web-based management information system by adding/deleting particulars, backing-up or resetting the database and extract online summary in the form of histograms for each donor and lists of f ree-format comments.Thus a graphical reporting tool should be provided for analyzing the data. †¢ and finally the system should be flexible enough to store data for several years and also be able provide sufficient User and Administration Guides. 4. 3. 3 Non-functional Requirements The system must be developed to suit the particular needs of a user-friendly environment. This means that the system must accommodate a clearly understandable user interface as well as clear online help documentation at any stage of the user interaction with the system.A fast response time in obtaining and providing information to the system may also prove to be a significant advantage. In addition to these requirements, the system should also embrace the following requirements:- Security: Each user is required to log in. The system should log staff that has been assigned user names and passwords. The system should be designed to make it impossible for anybody to logon without a valid username and pa ssword. Data encryption should be employed to keep the user login name and password secret.Reliability: The system would be used by about 50 staff working at the Red Cross head quarters and also some other many staff in the collaborating clinics and hospitals. The system should have little or no downtime and be able to handle multiple concurrent users. Ease of Use: The general and administrative views should be easy to use and intuitive. Online help and documentation should be provided. Performance: The system should have a quick response time. For the purpose of this research project, this would be defined as less than 5 seconds.System and Browser compatibility Testing: The system should be accessible on the following browsers – Microsoft Internet Explorer 5. 5+, NetScape Navigator 6. 0+ and Mozilla 1. 3+. System requirements: Red Cross society Uganda has a UNIX server. This system would be designed to run on a minimum hardware configuration of 500MHz x86 machines. Consideri ng the vast hardware available at the society , this would not pose any problems. Server Software: Operating System: Windows XP PHP version: PHP 5. 0+ Web Server: Apache Web Server. 2. 0+ Database: MySQL 4. 01+ [pic] . 4 Access Level Analysis In order to take closer look into what the system should do and how, it was necessary to decompose the system’s functionalities based on the user type and levels of access. The three main user groups and access levels are: †¢ Global User Group (normal access level) †¢ The Red Cross User Group (privileged access level) †¢ The Administration (privileged access level) Therefore, the requirements could be efficiently analyzed depending on the user group and the functionalities they should be allowed to perform. 4. 4. 1 Main System Page (Index)It is required for the system to provide a Main Page where any Global user (any user within and outside the Red Cross Organization) will be able to access. The main functionality of this page will be to allow any user to search the database by using information such as quantity of donated blood, available blood and the groups, or any other general information which may not be considered confidential. The search capabilities of the main page might not be limited to the exact blood donor, but may for example provide the means for displaying any information that might be relevant but not confidential.The Main Page should also include a Login facility for any privileged or normal user to be able to have access to more advanced functionalities of the System. 4. 4. 2 The Red Cross User Group When a Red Cross user has successfully logged into the system via the Main Page Login facility, it will be necessary for the system to display a specific menu with all available option that can be carried out. Therefore by taking into account the system requirements, it will be necessary to nclude options such as Enter donor details, Search donor, Use Endnote Facilities, Produce Summa ry Information as well as an option that will be related to the appropriate User Guide. A Logout option will also be appropriate for the Red Cross user to be able to logout when desired. 4. 4. 3 Entering-Amending Blood donor Details For a user to be able to amend and enter into the system’s database it will be essential to take into account that the blood donor system will be integrated to Endnote. Therefore, it will be essential for the system to provide to the user the exact fields as Endnote does for any particular type of details.In addition, when a particular of a given donor has successfully been submitted or amended into the database it will be essential for the system to display the appropriate message (i. e. Blood donor successfully entered into database). 4. 4. 4 Searching the Blood Donor Database The Searching Facility for the Red Cross user should not differ from the facility that will be provided on the Main Page of the system for all users. Therefore, the Red Cr oss user will be able to search any type of information in the database using the same way as specified for the Global User. 4. 4. 5 Producing Summary InformationFor this requirement it is essential to firstly understand why and when it will be used and to adjust the functionality to best suit these purposes. In order for the system to efficiently produce summary information it will have to provide a menu providing options such as Produce Annual Report, or Produce General Report etc. 4. 4. 6 Endnote Facilities In order for the system to be effective, it will be necessary for it to be integrated with the Endnote software. Therefore, it will be very significant to accommodate two options that will include Importing blood particulars from Endnote and Exporting blood particulars to Endnote.How this will be done will mainly rely on taking full advantage of particular Endnote filters that are provided for these reasons. 4. 4. 7 Administrator For maintenance purposes it will be of great si gnificance to include advanced Administrator functionalities that can only be accessed by this particular user group. The most reasonable options for an administrator to perform may include tasks such as deleting donors (should not be provided to the Red Cross user group for security reasons), Backing-up and Restoring the database, Resetting the blood donors database etc.In addition to these functionalities the administrator may also be asked to perform tasks related to Red Cross or Global user (i. e. Entering new donors, Searching for a given donor or available blood group) and therefore any functionality provided by the system must be included in the administrator capabilities. .5 Task Structure Diagrams For the development of a more consistent and effective system, it was essential to firstly identify which information should be included accomplish this, it was first of great significance to group all the relevant tasks (system functionalities) depending on the users.The way the systems tasks could be efficiently identified was by using a special technique from the Discovery method called Task Structure Sketching (Simons, 2002). 4. 5. 1 The Red Cross User Red Cross User Functionalities Fig 4. 1: The Red Cros User Task Structure Diagram Insert New Data Edit data Search for Data Produce summary Use Endnote Search for a recipient Search donors Search for disease Export d donations Weekly report Produce annual reports Import donations Search for hospitals Edit clinics Update data Edit donors -recipients Edit diseases Insert new disease Insert recipients Insert donor The Administrator UserAdministrator Functionalities Fig 4. 2 The Administrator Task Structure Diagram Red Cross user Functionalities Delete data Backup data Reset database Backup database Restore Database Delete a phased out disease Delete donor Delete recipient The administrator can perform any task that are performed by the Red Cross User 4. 5. 3 The Global User Global User Functionalities Search database Login Search by recipients Search by donors Search y Year Login as Red Cross User Login as Administrator Want to donate blood – 4. 7 Web Engineering Web engineering is the process used to create high quality Web-based systems and applications (WebApps).Web engineering (WebE) exhibits the fundamental concepts and principles of software engineering by following a disciplined approach to the development of computer-based systems, emphasizing the same technical and management activities (Pressman, 2000) [xx]. The design and production of a software product (such as a web application) involves a set of activities or a software process (Sommerville, 2004) [xx]. A software process model is an abstract representation of a software process. Three generic process models usually adopted in projects are †¢ The waterfall model – This has distinct project phases, which can be easily monitored.These phases are requirements specification, software design, implementation and testing. †¢ Evolutionary development – An initial system is developed quickly from abstract specifications. This is later refined with the input of the user to produce a system that meets the users needs. It is an iterative model. Two refinements of this approach are the incremental and the spiral models. The incremental model of evolutionary development delivers software in small but usable â€Å"increments†, where each increment builds on those that have already been delivered.The spiral model couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the waterfall model. †¢ Component-based software engineering – This is based on the existence of a large number of reusable components and is best suited in an object-oriented environment. A process model helps address the complexity of software, minimize the risk of project failure, deal with change during the project and help deliver the software quickly. For this pr oject two process models were considered: 1. Spiral model 2. A waterfall model. [pic] 4. A WebE Spiral model The spiral model shown in Fig 4. 4 is suggested by Pressman (2000)[xx]. The process consists of 6 main stages, outlined below: 1. Formulation: This is an activity in which the goals and objectives of the WebApp are identified and the scope for the first increment in the process is established. 2. Planning: This stage estimates overall project cost, evaluates risks associated with the development effort, prepares a detailed development schedule for the initial WebApp increment and defines a more coarsely granulated schedule for subsequent increments. Analysis: This stage is the requirement analysis stage for the WebApp. Technical requirements and content items to be used are identified. Graphic design requirements are also identified. Fig 4. 4: The WebE Spiral Model 4. Engineering: Two parallel set of tasks make up the engineering activity. One set involves content design and production, which is non-technical work. This involves gathering text, graphics, and other content to be integrated into the WebApp. At the same time, a set of technical tasks (Architectural design, Navigation design, and Interface Design) are carried out. . Page generation: This is the construction activity that makes use of automated tools for WebApp creation and the content is joined with the architectural, navigation and interface designs to produce executable Webpages in HTML. 6. Customer Evaluation: During this stage, each increment of the WebEprocess is reviewed. Powell (2002) [xx] presents a waterfall model for web engineering (Fig 5. 2). The advantage of this model is that it helps developers plan most of the work up front. 4. 9 Design Phase The design involves the production of technical and visual prototypes.This stage has some on-technical aspects such as gathering of web content. Powell (2002)[xx] points out that ontent gathering can be one of the biggest problems in we b projects. This clearly is not the ase with this survey application as there is very little content required. For the server side rogramming and other technical aspects of the design emphasis will be laid on such design oncepts and principles as effective modularity (high cohesion and low coupling), nformation hiding and stepwise elaboration. The goal is to make the system easier to adapt, ehance, test and use (Pressman, 2000) [xx]. 4. . 1 Producing HTML There are basically 4 methods of producing HTML – 1. Coding by hand using a simple text editor 2. Translation in which content produced in a tool such as note pad is saved as aHTML document. 3. Using a tagging editor that helps fill in the required tags 4. Using a â€Å"What you see is what you get editor† (WYSIWYG) such as MS FrontPage or Macromedia Dreamweaver ©. All these methods have their advantages and disadvantages. While coding by hand may be slow and error prone, it does provide great control over markup, a s well as help address bugs and new HTML/XHTML elements immediately.At the extreme, â€Å"What You See Is What You Get† (WYSIWYG) editors provide visual representation of a page and require no significant knowledge of HTML or CSS. However hey often generate incorrect or less than optimal markup and tend to encourage fixed size resentations that do not separate the look and the structure (Powell, 2003) [xx]. Putting all hese into consideration, a tagging editor, HTML-kit © was chosen for this work. While tagging editors can be slow and require intimate knowledge of HTML and CSS, they provide agreat deal of control and are a lot faster than hand editing. [pic] 4. 10 Architectural DesignWebApps fall into 4 main structures. They can be linear, grid, hierarchical, or networked (fig 4. 5). In practice most web sites are a combination of some of these structures. Fig. 4-5. Navigational Structures of websites/Web Applications ( Lemay, 2000) Considering the nature of this web applic ation, a combination of both hierarchical and linear structures will be adopted. The actual survey web pages will have a linear structure while the Admin pages will have more hierarchical nature. 411 Database Design Database design involves the production of a model of the data to be stored in the database.A data model is a diagram of the database design that documents and communicates how the database is structured. The database design methodology followed in this project is that suggested by Connolly et al(2002)[xx]. Connolly presents quite a detailed guide to designing database but not all of those steps may apply here, as this project is not too complex. The design process is divided into three main stages – conceptual, logical and physical database design. The purpose of the conceptual database design is to decompose the design into more manageable tasks, by examining user perspectives of the system.That is, local conceptual data models are created that are a complete an d accurate representation of the enterprise as seen by different users. Each local conceptual data model is made up of entity types, relationship types, attributes and their domains, primary keys and integrity constraints. For each user view identified a local conceptual data model would be built. (Connolly et al,2002) [xx]. In building the conceptual data model, a data dictionary is built to identify the major entities in the system. An entity relationship (ER) diagram is used to visualize the system and represent the user’s requirements.The ER diagram is used to represent entities and how they relate to one another. The ER diagram also shows the relationships between the entities, their occurrence (multiplicities) and attributes. Following the view integration approach, a different data model (ER diagram) is made for each user Data Dictionary Entity Name Description Donors A person who donates blood Recipients A person who receives blood Diseases The diseases which are foun d in the infected donated blood Blood group The blood that is donated by the donors Hospital/ClinicHospitals to which donated blood is distributed Staff Red Cross staff District Districts from which donors and recipients originate from Table 4. 1: Data Dictionary 4. 11. 1 Conceptual Database Design In this stage, a local conceptual data model is built for each identified view in the system. Alocal conceptual data model comprises of entity types, relationship types, attributes and their domains, primary and alternate keys, and integrity constraints. The conceptual data model is supported by documentation such as a data dictionary.The entity types are the main objects the users are interested in. Entities have an existence intheir own right. Entity types are identified and their names and description are recorded in adata dictionary. Care is taking to ensure that all relationships in the users requirements specification are identified. An Entity-Relationship diagram is used to represe nt the relationship between entities. The multiplicity of each relationship is included. This is because a model that includes multiplicity constraints gives a better representation of the enterprise.Relationship descriptions and the multiplicity constraints are recorded in the data dictionary. Each model is validated to ensure it supported the required transactions. Entity name Attributes Description Data Type Size Nulls Multi Valued Donors donorId (PK) -dNames -sex – dob – distId (FK) – doreg Donor identification number Donor’s names Donor’s sex Date of birth District of origin Date of registration Text Text Text Date Int Date 8 30 6 30 3 30 No No No No No No No No No No No No Recipients -rId (PK) -rNames -sex – dob – distId (FK) – doreg Recipient’s identification umber Recipients names recipient’s sex Date of birth District of origin Date of registration Text Text Text Date Int Date 8 30 6 30 3 30 No No No No N o No No No No No No No Diseases -dId (PK) -dNames -drating Disease identification number Disease names Disease rating on how people are infected from it Text Text text 8 30 20 No No No No No No Blood bGroup(PK) donorId (FK) rId (FK) status Blood group Donor identification number recipient identification number status of the donated blood whether infected or not Text Text Text text 2 8 8 15 No No No No No No No No Hospital/Clinic hId (PK) hNames distId (FK) Hospital identification number Hospital name District identification Number text text int 8 100 3 No No No No No No Staff staffId (PK) staffNames sex dob department Staff identification number Staff names Sex Date of birth Department to which the staff belongs text text sex date text 8 50 6 15 100 No No No No No No No No No No District distId distName District number District name int text 3 100 No No No No Entity name Multiplicity Relationship Entity Name Multiplicity Donors 1 Donates Blood 1 Recipients 1 Receives Blood 1 Disease s Contained in Blood 0 .. * Blood 1 Donated by Donor 1 .. * Hospital/ Clinic 1 Receives Blood 1 .. * Staff 1 Registers Donors 1 .. * District 1 Has Recipients 1 .. * Table 4. 2: An extract from the data dictionary showing a description of the relationships between the entities. 4. 11. 2 Logical Database Design The process of logical database design constructs a model of the information used in an enterprise based on a specific data model, such as the relational model, but independent of a particular DBMS and other physical considerations (Connolly et al, 2002)[xx].The logical database design consists of an ER diagram, a relational schema, and any supporting documentation for them. In the logical data model, all attributes of entities are primitive. Producing a logical data model involves normalization. The aim of normalization is to eradicate certain undesirable characteristics from a database design. It removes data redundancy and thus prevents update anomalies. Normalization helps increase the clarity of the data model. Integrity constraints are imposed in order to protect the database from becoming inconsistent.There are five types of integrity constraints – required data, attribute domain constraints, entity integrity, referential integrity and enterprise constraints. The resulting relations are validated using normalization. For this project, producing relations in third normal form (3NF) will suffice. Non-relational features, such as many-to-many relationships and some one-to-one relationships, are removed from the conceptual data model. The design is also reviewed to make sure it meets all the transaction requirements. [pic] 1.. * 1.. 1 1.. * 1.. * 1.. 1 1.. 1 registers Donors PK donorId Names sex dob FK distId doreg District PK distId distName Recipient PK rId rNames sex dob FK distId doreg Hospital PK hId (PK) hNames FK distId Staff PK staffId staffNames sex dob department Diseases PK dId dNames drating Blood PK bGroup FK donorId FK rId status Fig. 4. 6: The ER diagram 4. 11. 3 Physical Database Design Physical database design translates the logical data model into a set of SQL statements that define the database for a particular database system. In other words, it is the process of producing a description of the implementation of the database on secondary storage.It describes the base relations and the storage structures and access methods used to access the data effectively, along with associated integrity constraints and security measures. The target DBMS in this case is MySQL. The following translations occur: 1. Entities become tables in MySQL. 2. Attributes become columns in the MySQL database. 3. Relationships between entities are modeled as foreign keys. Donation Process View Video †¢ [pic] Getting Ready for Your Donation †¢ †¢ The Donation Process Step by Step †¢ †¢ After the Donation To get ready for your  donation: | |[pic] | |Make an Appointment | |It always helps us to know in adv ance when you are coming in to make a donation. | |[pic] | |Hydrate |[pic] | |Be sure to drink plenty of fluids the day of your donation. | |[pic] | | |Wear Something Comfortable | | |Wear clothing with sleeves that can easily be rolled up | | |above the elbow. | |[pic] | | |Maintain a Healthy  Level of Iron in Your Diet  Before | | |Donating | | |If possible, include iron-rich foods  in your diet, | | |especially in the weeks before your donation. | |[pic] | |Bring a List of Medications You Are Taking | |We will need to know about any prescription and/or over the counter medications that may be in your system. |[pic] | |[pic] |Bring an ID | | |Please bring either your donor card, driver's | | |license or two other forms of identification. | |[pic] | | |Bring a Friend | | |Bring along a friend, so that you may both enjoy | | |the benefits of giving blood. | |[pic] | | |Relax! | | |Blood donation is a simple and very safe procedure| | |so there is nothing to worry about. |

Thursday, August 29, 2019

A Note on Cheerleading Essay Example for Free

A Note on Cheerleading Essay ? Cheerleading. When you hear that word, what do you think about? Snobby, skinny blonde girls that have nothing else to do in life besides smile and wear short skirts? Well, when I hear that word, I think of confident, courageous and athletic young women who have a chance to be someone else on a gym floor. Cheerleading is full of so many opportunities! I’ve been a cheerleader for four years and it has done so many things. But before that all happened, my life was just simple. I was nervous to talk in crowds, my face turned red when people wanted to speak to me, and I acted shy in many other ways. I wouldn’t say I was a nobody. I mean, I was a somebody, but just not a positive, talkative student who enjoyed attention. In 7th grade, signing up for cheerleading was a hassle. I didn’t want to sign up all by myself. So I convinced some of my friends to sign up with me. Unfortunately, they quit right before try-outs because they weren’t that interested anymore. So basically, I felt all by myself. But I hung on. I cheered all the cheers, chanted all the chants, stretched all the stretches, and jumped all the jumps. Cheerleading was fun. It changed my life in just three months. I felt as if I was â€Å"coming out of my shell.† But more was to come freshman year. Signing up for cheerleading in freshmanwas easy. But it was the wait for the season to actually start that was aggravating! Eventually, time slowly came by and it was , 2009, the first day of practice, and that was a wake-up call. There was a new, more professional coach, and only one girl from last year was back to be on the squad. So it was time to meet other people for a change and make more friends. New cheers were being taught from the captains of the High School Cheerleaders. Who knew that I’d get the highest score in try-outs and become head captain? Well, I did, and a captain is supposed to lead everyone. That’s what let me be myself. I was able to help everyone understand what to do, when to do it, and stand in front of a crowd by having a different uniform than the other non-captains on the team. Games are my favorite. Just running onto the floor is a rush, and I plan to do that for at least four more years. Yes, I want to be on the High School Cheerleading squad! I’m confident I will make it, and I’m not scared to try. The high school coach has been to some of our practices and I could tell she was impressed. I guess I have to wait a year to see what she says. GO, BULLDOGS! As you can see, there’s been a drastic before and after. Before, I was a shy girl who was just average. Now, I’m a young woman who has a good sense of self-confidence! A Note on Cheerleading. (2017, Jan 21).

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Management and Control of Corporation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4750 words

Management and Control of Corporation - Essay Example Moreover, Romano (1998, 2359) states that although ‘both the states and the federal government regulate securities transactions, the current regulatory arrangements are a far cry from competitive federalism; the federal securities regime, consisting of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, applies to all publicly traded firms and is a mandatory system of disclosure regulation, bolstered by antifraud provisions; while the federal laws do not preempt all state regulation, states cannot lower the regulatory standards applicable to firms covered by the federal regime because its requirements are mandatory; they have also been prevented from raising regulatory standards on some occasions’. Moreover, in the summer of 2002, Congress ‘passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2) in response to a barrage of corporate governance crises and flagging investor confidence in the securities markets’ (Song, 2003, 257). Â  The historical background of the Securities legislation in the U.S. (included the proxy rules) can be rooted in 1929. To a more analytical description of the main events related with their establishment, Burk (1992, 23) stated that ‘investment bankers in the 1920 s were driven by a desire to gain influence over others and to make huge fortunes off their influence; all of them were not, of course, but enough was to set the tone; they took advantage of the mass market for securities, created to sell war bonds during the First World War, by peddling corporate securities of questionable value at artifically high prices; The result was not a permanent prosperity, as some predicted, but a crash, which saw stock prices lose ninety percent of their value over the course of three years, and an economic depression, which lasted for the better part of a decade’. Â  

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Modern-day Slavery in the USA Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Modern-day Slavery in the USA - Research Paper Example Now, one cannot blame the US government on the past deeds because slavery (say, slavery, forced work and slave trading) does not prevail in the USA. From a different angle of view, slavery in the modern age is entirely different because it is closely related to globalization and it’s after effects. Thesis statement: The transformation of slavery from older days to the modern age in USA proves that poverty and related factors manipulated the same but effective measures can reduce its negative effect in a multiracial society (special references to the modern-day Slavery in the USA). Slavery: definition As pointed out, there exist so many differences between slavery in the older days and slavery in the present condition. For instance, slavery in the older days exerted direct influence upon the salves. But now, slavery is indirect and it is difficult to differentiate it from forced labour or denial of human rights. Earlier, salves faced a number of problems related to human dignit y and inhuman behaviour from their owners. Now, the situation is different and the present day salves are facing a number of other problems like poverty and it’s after effects. Still, the older definition of slavery is not applicable to present day salves because slavery is indirect and invisible. ... In 1600s, some Africans from the African continent were enslaved by the British colonial authorities and were forced to do hard labour in North America (say, Virginia). This resulted in the unrestricted slave trade from Africa and slavery in USA. But the beginning of slavery in American continent was initiated by the Spanish invaders in 1500s. When more and more land was used for agricultural purposes, slave trade and forced labour rapidly spread to other parts of USA. The end of colonization resulted in the deterioration of slavery in USA. The American Civil War resulted in the abolition of slavery and forced labour. But Modern-day Slavery in the USA, in other forms, poses threats to human dignity and social development in general. How slavery is performed First of all, slavery in USA in older times was based upon unfree labor or all the main forms of slavery. Slavery under the landlords includes the restriction of basic human rights. The slaves were not allowed to be free from forc ed labor because slavery was not limited to any particular generation. When a human being is enslaved, his or her off springs will automatically become slaves. Besides, less or no money was paid for forced slavery. As the slaves were considered as animals or commodities that can be sold or bought, less importance was given to them. In USA, there were a number of slave traders who used to supply slaves to farm owners. As the slaves were forced to be loyal to their owner, they were forced to ignore the importance of human rights. So, one can easily identify that slavery in USA was brutally performed, without any human consideration towards the slaves. Modern-day Slavery in USA:

Monday, August 26, 2019

Management of Information Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Management of Information Business - Essay Example Introduction Global business environment is becoming highly competitive as several leading organizations are trying to expand their business operations and business practices on several emerging and developed economies. It is important for the organizations to develop and implement unique business operation strategies in business process in order to achieve significantly competitive advantages. Leading multinational organizations are trying to expand their business process in global market place in order to capitalize on the potential advantages that have been developed due to globalization. Market demand for differentiated and diverged products and services is significantly growing among the global consumers due to globalization and several significant changes in external environmental factors. The report will try to recommend an international business expansion plan for Tata Motors in France automobile market. France is the member of European Union. On the other hand, Tata Motors i s the leading automobile manufacturers in India. The organization is planning to enter in the potential French Automobile market in order to increase market share and develop potential global client base. The report will conduct company, industry, country and regional organization’s (EU) analysis in order to recommend Tata Motors an effective market entry strategy. Porter’s five force analysis has been conducted in order to determine the competition within the industry. PESTLE analysis has been adopted in this study in order to determine the external environmental impact on Tata Motors in France. At last the report will provide conclusion by summing up several key points. MNE Analysis (Tata Motors) Tata Motors Limited is an India based Multinational... This paper stresses that Tata Motors is one of the profitable India based multinational organization trying to expand business performance in France. It is clear from above discussion that French automobile industry is highly competitive as several leading organizations are operating within the industry to grab each other’s market share and client base. In addition to this, economic downturn and change in social demand is motivating the automobile manufacturers to implement unique customer centric approaches in business operation. This report makes a conclusion that France is one of the important members of European Union. The nations within this European Union try to develop significant business and industrial strategies to improve the condition of business environment. European Union tries to focus on infrastructure development in order to motivate leading multinational organizations to enter in the market. Looking into these social advantages, Tata Motors is trying to enter in the developed French market to maximize market share and profit margin. It is difficult for an organization to enter in an international market and start making profit initially due to several external environmental barriers. Therefore, it would be effective for Tata Motors if they choose joint venture as the market entry mode. It will help the MNE to get effective financial and HRM support from the co-venture initially. Significant access to supply chain of co-venture can help Tata Motors to reduce business operation cost and time. M ost importantly it will help the organization to meet market demand.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

HCI Reading Journal- Peer Review #3 Research Paper

HCI Reading Journal- Peer Review #3 - Research Paper Example Unlike most phones that are rigid, it is true that the Samsung galaxy and other several android smart phones allow the users to group the apps based on their usability and relationship. I also keep all my social media apps in one folder and video and music in another. This way I am able to easily and conveniently access my files and applications. I agree with you that the ability to add distinct colors to each folder makes it cool and more organized. It is true to say that the design of this interface was purely user centered and it was anchored on satisfaction of the user needs. There is no better way that a user interface will be user friendly than when it allows the user a substantial degree of customization. The concept is not only cool but an eye opener. After watching the explanation from this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKnqECcg6Gw I was able to understand why the digital interface has the dark outline due to the fading between colors. I agree with ou that this is great in-depth info that I definitely will have to consider if I ever want to add this feature in my user interface. The only thing I can say about this observation is that the greatest mistake Microsoft made on windows 8 was to eliminate the start button. Each time I use windows 8 I keep asking myself whether Microsoft ever did a usability testing or evaluation. If so I must say that was a big flop is usability considerations. I agree with you that the elimination of the start button was a big let down to the users of the interface. Additionally the whole interface is more complex and needs a lot of memorizing. That is just increasing the users cognitive load something that Heim (2008) cautions designers against. The recent versions of MS office are more user friendly, well organized and basically cool just as you put it. This is one good example of great user interface design that is focused on simplicity and user friendliness. The

Clinical Supervision As a Professional Requirement for All Nurses Assignment

Clinical Supervision As a Professional Requirement for All Nurses - Assignment Example The Council of Midwifery and Nursing acknowledge this practice as an imperative part of medical governance. This practice of clinical supervision is a legal obligation for midwives other than for nurses (John, 2000 p 16). Clinical supervision is a practice that requires thorough preparation, especially if one is going for the first clinical supervision. John Driscoll came up with a model that is used to reflect the practice of clinical supervision. The analysis of the first clinical supervision assumes three main aims. They include an analysis of professional and personal expectations of a supervisee in clinical supervision. The second aim is to know the manner to be ready for the primary clinical meeting, and the third aim is to identify the essential skills that will help a supervisee to reap the most benefits from the meetings of clinical supervision (John, 2000 p 18). It is indispensable for as a supervisee to examine continuing skills to build up as a supervisee prior to the pri mary meeting. This will help the supervisee to get a forehand in matters that will be looked at during the supervision. It is also imperative to reflect on the ways of overcoming the barriers to begin the supervision and assume full accountability for what turns out in clinical supervision (John, 2000 p 22). In addition, consider the essential limits to glance at prior to going for the initial clinical supervision meeting. Lastly, you should come up with a list of personal needs that you expect to satisfy in the clinical supervision and analyze the effectiveness of that supervision against then identified needs.  Clinical supervision is a professional partnership between the supervisor and the clinical supervisee. However, it is imperative to get a chance to reflect on your personal opinions, and myths, as well as concerns. This is an integral part of preparation as a new-fangled supervisee before meeting with your supervisor. This can be achieved by completing a SWOT analysis tha t will highlight the things that you have as a practitioner that you can capitalize on meetings of clinical supervision. A SWOT analysis will help you to identify some of the benefits that you will get for involving yourself in clinical supervision. The same analysis will help the supervisee to identify any anticipated barriers in participating in clinical supervision, as well as identify the actions that need to be taken to overcome these hindrances (John, 2000 p 23). SWOT analysis highlights the strengths that a person has, the weaknesses that need to be addressed, the opportunities and the threats that may low a person down while going for something (John, 2000 p 68). The supervisee has a role to toil inside the supervisory association to gain maximum benefits from clinical, supervisory meetings. This will increase their efficiency and autonomy in the practice of nursing. As a supervisee performs their role, they should get a good comparison between their own thoughts and the act ual way of doing things based on the SWOT analysis they had formed earlier (John, 2000 p 65).  

Saturday, August 24, 2019

The quality of education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

The quality of education - Essay Example ation as it started to take steps at commercializing accomplishments with affordable mass accessibility, which led to disproportionate number of academic resources to serve each learner and poor ratio between scarce number of teachers to the growing student population. This according to W. Brown was the consequence of mismanagement of both the financial and political systems in their failure to balance priorities with state budgeting and marketing education with impertinent models that had mostly been strategically business-oriented. With the facts briefly yet sufficiently presented, W. Brown devoted the second half of her address to enhance her claims from an informative level to a more persuasive and dynamic rate of appeal she occurred to bring her audience to not only listen but empathize on acting with urgency as she encouraged the listeners to advocate the thoughtful conviction that the consequence of education with poor quality is dangerous ignorance in the sense that an improperly educated mass could possible run the risk of yielding to certain self-governing incapacities toward personal development as well as impaired discernment of democracy in the future. Based on the author’s knowledge of the prevailing situation both of the cause and experienced reality of the effects thereafter considering how effectively she delivered concrete examples by comparing the past and current conditions of public education in California, Wendy Brown did acquire unquestionable grounds for summoning authorities as well as concerned parties to take this matter seriously. Her arguments are clear enough that it sensibly establishes a good critique of the problematic systems and factors that essentially determine the measure of quality in public education so that this is channeled across to every individual understanding with a sense of direction and commitment towards proper resolution. It is quite significant and interesting to be involved with the aforementioned issue,

Friday, August 23, 2019

Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Arab-Israeli Conflict - Essay Example The first conflict between the two nations, known as the first Arab-Israeli War, started on May 15, 1948, when five Arab armies invaded the one-day- old Jewish state. "The war was fought along the entire, long border of the country: against Lebanon and Syria in the north; Iraq and Transjordan - renamed Jordan during the war - in the east; Egypt, assisted by contingents from the Sudan - in the south; and Palestinians and volunteers from Arab countries in the interior of the country. It was the bloodiest of Israel's wars. It cost 6,373 killed in action (from pre-state days until 20 July 1949) almost 1% of the yishuv (the Jewish community)" (Lorch 2003). Therefore, the War of Independence in 1948 was the most destructive wars that the two nations ever fought and it did not mark the end of the Arab-Israeli conflict, although the war came to an end with the 1949 Armistice Agreements. The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, which was fought between the newly declared State of Israel and its Arab neighbours, has been known in different names, and the Israelis call it as the War of Independence or War of Liberation while the Arabs name it as the Catastrophe. The United Nations made an important decision to partition Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state on Nov. 29, 1947, and the war broke out following the withdrawal of the British force from the region. "Mounting violence leads to the first Arab-Israeli war in early 1948, when the British withdraw from the region. Jewish forces hold their ground and declare Israeli statehood on May 14, 1948. Neighbouring Arab nations, including Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt and then-Transjordan, lend support to the Palestinians. The Egyptians are the last to seek an end to hostilities; an armistice is reached in January 1949." (The Arab-Israeli conflict, 1947-present). Therefore, various nations such as Israel, Palestine, and other nei ghbouring Arab nations, including Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt etc took part in the war of 1947. In fact, the fighting had started long before long before the actual date of the war between local Jews and local Arabs who were supported by volunteers from neighbouring states such as Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, and Egypt. Significantly, it was the bloodiest of the seven wars that the Israelis had fought in the region and around 6,000 Jews were killed in the war, which is almost 1 per cent of the country's Jewish population at the time. "It was also the last time Israel found itself facing an opposing force that did not overwhelmingly outnumber its own. Between 35,000 to 45,000 Israel soldiers were pitted against 42,000 to 54,0000 troops from the Arab countries." (Background: The 1947 - 1949 Arab-Israeli War). Therefore, the 1948 Arab-Israeli War was the most destructive war among the various wars belonging to the Arab-Israeli conflict. The war which was fought in four phases came to an end o n February 24, 1949, when the Israel troop and Egypt signed an armistice agreement that was followed by similar agreements with Lebanon on March 23, 1949, with Jordan on April 3, 1949 and with Syria on July 20, 1949. Thus, the 1948 Arab-Israeli War ended without great lose to the Israeli side which was established as a sovereign state in 1948. Another

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Create a Bussiness Essay Example for Free

Create a Bussiness Essay My name is Eric Thomas Mendoza, and I am the newly appointed manager of the products division for my company. The job of my team is to conduct research for my company and ensure that we are getting the best possible deal in the best interest of my companies business. My associates and I have recently discovered that we may be paying a higher price with your company versus your many direct competitors, one example that stands out is Portmouth Paper Supplies. My records indicate that your company and my firm have been in business together since the inception of my company, in 1988. Although I am required to get our products at the lowest cost, I would prefer to keep your company as our main paper supplier due to our long-standing relationship with your company. I am asking you to consider that you consider 10% price reduction for all of our orders over $400, which would make the prices more competitive and allows us to maintain the ongoing relationship between our companies. If you  do not wish to give us a more completive rate , by either beating or exceeding your direct competition, then we may have to discontinue our business relationship, because of basic economics and the present state of the economy. Your contract with us reaches its conclusion in 30 days. We here at Halcyon would like to offer to continue our business relationship, but that depends on you. We look forward to hearing from you soon.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Eye diseases

Eye diseases 1. Introduction 1.1 Glaucoma Eye disease such as glaucoma, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy are some of the common causes of reduced vision and blindness (Short, 2008). Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease where the damage of optic nerves resulted in visual field loss. In the year of 2010, it is estimated that 60.5 million people will be diagnosed with glaucoma, and by 2020, the number would be increased to 79.6 million (Quigley and Broman, 2005). According to International Glaucoma Association, some of the risk factors that contribute to the development of glaucoma are advanced age, race, long or short sighted, and genetic predisposition. Damage of the optic nerves in glaucoma is often due to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) which occurs when there is an imbalance of aqueous humor production and drainage in the eye. This clear fluid produced by the ciliary body flows into the posterior chamber and exit through trabecular meshwork at the open angle where the cornea and iri s meet (1). Blocked drainage channel restricts the flow of aqueous humor out of the anterior chamber. This causes the pressure in eye to be increased to an abnormal level, thus damaging the optic nerves. Optic nerve plays an important role in transmitting impulses from the light sensitive tissue layer, the retina to the brain, where the visual information is interpreted. Therefore, early detection and treatment could prevent permanent and irreversible blindness from glaucoma. There are several classifications of glaucoma, the most common types are primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). The difference between these two types is the present of physical obstruction in the drainage channel in one and its absence in the other. As for the former type, an increase in IOP is caused by blockage of the drainage channel where the aqueous humor drains out (1) (Coleman,1999). This process occurs very gradually and often patient does not notice any early signs of sight loss such as blind spots, or patches of vision loss until severe damaged has been done to the optic nerves, thus causing blindness. Different ethnic group was shown to have different glaucoma prevalence. The African population was shown to be more prevalent to suffer from POAG in the study demonstrated by Ntim-Amponsah et al. (2004). The standardised age-specific glaucoma prevalence for that ethic group was 7.7% while the Caucasians have an overall lower prevalence than that. It was suggested by Herndon et al. (2004) that the blacks have an overall thinner central corneal compared to the Caucasians and this might contribute to the progression of POAG. As explained by Coleman (1999), in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), the angle between the iris and lens is very narrow. When the iris dilates, the iris-lens contact prevents the flow of aqueous humor into the anterior chamber. The continuous secretion of aqueous humor creates a pressure which pushes the iris forward onto the trabecular meshwork, closing the angle (1). This rapid onset causes sudden build-up of intraocular pressure leading to short-term loss of vision. Severe eye pain, blurred vision, headache, nausea, vomiting and halos around lights are among the symptoms observed in this eye disease. Asian was shown to have a higher prevalence of PACG compared to the Western population. Some of the studies concluded that Chinese are at a higher risk of suffering from PACG. This is related to the geometry of the anterior chamber where Chinese has a smaller corneal or a shallower anterior chamber, thus implying that there is a higher risk of developing angle closure and therefo re PACG (Wang et al., 2002). 1.2 Pharmacological therapy of glaucoma The goal in treating glaucoma is to delay the progression by giving immediate therapy for early stage glaucoma patient to prevent further loss of vision. Treatment aims to reduce IOP by either increasing the aqueous humor drainage or reducing the aqueous humor secretion rate. Several classes of drugs are used in the treatment of glaucoma, namely beta-adrenergic antagonists (beta-blockers), selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and prostaglandin analogues. The choice of treatment depends on the effectiveness and side-effects of the drug, co-mobility and cost of treatment. Beta-blockers are one for the first line drug used in treatment of glaucoma but newer medications are increasingly being used as first choice of glaucoma therapy. The exact mechanism of beta-blocker in reducing IOP is not known, but it was suggested that beta-blocker reduces the aqueous humor production by blocking the beta2-receptor on the non-ciliary body epithelium. On average, no n-selective beta-blockers such as timolol, levobunolol, carteolol and metipranolol lower the IOP by 20-35% while beta1-receptor antagonist, betaxolol lowers it by 15-25%. However, when the pharmacological therapy is unsuccessful, laser or surgery are required to treat this eye disease (Soltau and Zimmerman, 2002). The most widely used ocular hypotensive agent is the non-selective beta-blocker, timolol. Timolol is often used as an adjunct therapy to other difference classes of IOP-lowering agents such as brimonidine, travoprost and acetazolamide. In one of the studies, combination therapy of latanoprost and timolol was proved to be more effective in lowering IOP compared to using lataoprost alone in glaucoma treatment (Olander K, 2004). The maleate salt of timolol is soluble in water and alcohol, and has a pKa of approximately 9 in water at 25Â °C. The current commercially available opthalmic therapies of timolol are timolol maleate topical opthalmic solution and gel-forming ophthalmic solution. Some of the local side effects of topical application of timolol include ocular irritation, burning, pain, itching, erythema and dry eyes. Beta-blocker is contra-indicated in patients who have bronchial asthma, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sinus bradycardia, heart block, or uncontr olled heart failure. In some cases, exacerbation of reactive airways disease and cardiovascular disease due to the systemic absorption of the non-selective beta-blocker has been reported occasionally in patients receiving topical timolol therapy (McEvoy G K, 2002). After long-term usage of timolol, tolerance might develop in some patients. This has been suggested that there is an up-regulation of beta-receptors in target cells in response to constant exposure of antagonist at the beta-receptors (Fechtner, 2008). 1.3 Drug delivery in treatment of glaucoma There are several approaches in delivering intraocular drugs, among them are topical application, systemic administration, intraocular implants and intravitreal injections. Each of these routes has its own advantages and challenges (Short, 2008). Topical administration is the most widely used route for drug delivery in treating eye diseases. The major challenge of this application to the posterior ocular tissues is poor drug bioavailability resulted from the ocular physiological and anatomical constraints, which include tear fluid turnover rate, nasolacrimal drainage and high efficiency of blood-ocular barrier. It was shown that only 1-5% of the topically applied drugs is absorbed across the cornea and reaches the target intraocular tissues. Furthermore, nasolacrimal drainage contributes to extensive precorneal losses that lead to poor bioavailability. In addition, systemic exposure through nasolacrimal drainage will also cause significant systemic toxicity. Blood-ocular barrier whic h is located at the retinal pigmented epithelium and the endothelium of the retinal vessels is also a major challenge in delivering topical drugs to the target tissues. This barrier limits the penetration of intraocular drugs to the back of the eyes. Unfortunately, systemically administered drugs are also having the same problem in penetrating the barrier. Hence, alternative drug delivery strategies such as intravitreal injections have been investigated and developed to overcome this problem (Tombrain-Tink and Barnstable, 2006). Intravitreal injection is the administration of intraocular drugs to the vitreous cavity of the eye and this route is becoming increasingly popular in treating glaucoma patients. Due to short half-life of drugs in the vitreous, frequent and repeated injections to the eye are needed to maintain the drug concentration at therapeutic level in the vitreous and the retina. Consequently, this procedure leads to complication such as infection, vitreous hemorrhage, and lens or retinal injury. Sustained release formulation has been developed and possible benefits of particulate drug delivery has been investigated and studied to overcome such complications. The particulate drug delivery systems include microparticles and nanoparticles such as liposome, microcapsule, nanocapsules, microspheres and nanospheres. Liposomes, microcapsules and nanocapsules allow encapsulation of the drug molecules while in microspheres and nanospheres, drugs are dispersed in a spherical polymer matrix. These particu lates act as a reservoir to control the release rate during periods of days and sometime even months (Short, 2008; Tombrain-Tink and Barnstable, 2006). 1.4 Microspheres Microspheres of biodegradable polymers such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) are a combination of drug and polymer. PLGA-based microspheres have several advantages over other controlled released drug delivery system. The administration of these microspheres to the body only requires syringes and needles, thus avoiding surgical implants of controlled-release formulations. Besides that, these PLGA are biodegradable and are biocompatible to the tissues, including the brain tissues (Fournier, 2003). Three microencapsulation techniques are being employed in producing PLGA microspheres these days. Solvent evaporation and solvent extraction process is one of the method which includes single emulsion process and double emulsion process. The former process involves oil-in-water emulsification and latter is the most commonly used water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) method used to encapsulate water-soluble drugs such as timolol maleate into microspheres. Final emulsions from both processes wi ll undergo solvent removal by extraction or evaporation. The solid microspheres that are produced from these processes will then be filtered or sieved, and finally dried. This technique is widely used because it is easy and does not involve complicated steps. Other methods such as phase separation and spray drying are also being used to encapsulate microspheres. The disadvantage of phase separation is that it needs a careful optimisation of some parameters, such as solvent and polymer type, salt type and concentration in order to obtain any microspheres at all. On the other hand, the limitation of spray drying is that small batches of drug are produced due to loss of product during spray-drying (Jain, 2000). PLGA, a copolymer of lactic acids and glycolic acids is commonly used in the production of controlled-release biomedical devices such as microparticles and nanoparticles. Incorporation of the active substance in polymer matrix allows drug to be released at a slower rate over a prolonged period, thus reducing the frequency of drug administration and hence improving patients compliance. The main target of controlled-release drug delivery is to produce a zero-order release pattern, but this was not achieved very often. Some of the small molecules are associated with undesirable initial burst phase during where drugs on the microsphere surface are being released through rapid diffusion, followed by a slow release or no release. During the initial burst phase, excessive release of potent drugs from the polymer for a prolonged time causes severe side effects. However, during the second phase, only a small fraction of drug will be released from the matrix due to decreased driving force in d rug depletion (Berkland et al., 2002). In the study conducted by Mao et al. (2007), the effect of different preparation of water-in-oil-in water emulsion on the burst release of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran from the PLGA microspheres was being investigated. It was found that an increase in drug loading, polyvinyl alcohol concentration and homogenisation speed resulted in a decrease in initial burst. This is due the changes in morphology of the by using different preparation techniques. The main mechanism of drug release from microsphere can be divided to two processes, which are drug diffusion from the polymer network and drug release through polymer degradation. Once PLGA is administered to the eyes, water fills into the network of pore by a negative water gradient and the active compound subsequently diffuses out of the co-polymer. However, this gradient will disappear gradually within a period time and thus the drug molecules are released at a slower rate at a later stage. This process is often coupled with the breakage of ester bonds of the polymer by hydrolysis and it can also be autocatalysed by the accumulation of acidic degradation products and hence leading degradation of PLGA-based microsphere. During this process, oligomers at the surface of microsphere escape from the matrix, leaving behind those who are entrapped inside the matrix core. Size of microsphere plays a very important role in manipulating the rate of degradation. In one of the study, it was shown that larger particle size will degrade more rapidly. This is due to the inner core of the polymer is more acidic compared to its external environment (Grizzi et al. ,1995) Effect of several factors such as polymer composition and preparation condition on the drug release patterns were being investigated by several studies. It has been demonstrated by Janoria and Mitra (2007) that different lactide/glycolide ratio resulted in different release rate of a lipophilic prodrug (GCV-monobutyrate) from PLGA-based microsphere. PLGA with higher lactide content (65:35) was found to have higher glass transition temperature than lower lactide content (50:50) of PLGA polymer. This was suggested that the former ratio had slower drug diffusion through the polymer matrix, hence longer releasing time. On the other hand, an addition of surfactants, polyvinyl alcohol or Triton X-100 to the primary emulsion obtained from the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique resulted in the production of larger particle size, thus slower releasing rate was observed (Bouissou et al., 2006). Besides that, inclusion of additives in the formulation will also affect the release prof ile of microspheres. Kang F R and Singh J (2001) found out that the addition of PEG 1000 and tricaprin increased the porosity of the PLGA, thus changing its surface characteristics. This has lead to a higher initial releasing rate of bovine serum albumin due to rapid diffusion of the protein through the large pores on the surface of microspheres. Different preparation methods effect the morphology and drug distribution of microspheres. A change in the process condition will yield different size distribution and porosity of the microsphere. Some of the critical parameters of determining the microparticles morphology are volume ratio of oil to internal water, homogenisation speed and type of solvents used. Surface morphology of microspheres is shown to be influenced by the volume ratio of oil to internal water in a research conducted by Yang et al. (2000). An increase in size and initial burst of the microspheres was observed by decreasing the volume ratio from 40:1 to 12:1. More porous microparticles were also observed in lower volume ratio. Homogenisation speed was also proved to be important in determining the morphology of microparticles by Sansdrap and Moes (1993). When homogenisation speed was increased, the microparticulate was found to be smaller. Similarly, different organic phase solvent was proved to produce differen t size distribution of particles. Song et al. (2006) showed that partially water-soluble solvents such as ethyl acetate and propylene carbonate produced smaller mean particle size compared to the fully water-soluble solvents, acetone and dichloromethane. Since there are limited studies based on the effect of method parameters on the morphology and drug release profile of timolol maleate encapsulated microsphere, this study aimed to further investigate the effect of volume ratio of oil to internal water, homogenisation speed and type of solvents used. Timolol maleate is encapsulated in PLGA by double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. The surface morphology and particle sizes of the microspheres were being studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the other hand, the effect on the drug release profile was determined by analysing the released drug sample from the microspheres using ultraviolet spectrophotometer.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Online Property Management System

Online Property Management System Study and Develop of an online property management system for City 2 Property Chapter 1: Literature Review 1.1 Overview In this chapter, the author conducts literature review mainly on the studies of online property management system to find out how property management works on the internet. The author also focuses on the technologies and tools involved in making online property management system more efficient. 1.2 Online Property Management Online property management basically contains most of the business method that renovate to the internet. It is the management of property management using online tools. When online property management implemented, it make many things like booking keeping, collecting rental fees, managing properties and contact with clients more easy and efficient. Online property management is simple and usually do not require any high performance or complicated application to work on. Usually, many real estate company in Malaysia still prefer paperwork instead of using property management system to enhance their operation. One of the reason is the preference of paperwork and not use to working on system when think about working using a system. Therefore, less complicated interface and process in online property management system give advantages to those who considering on implementing system work into their business. And for this reason, it encourages online property management system to a higher demand level in online business nowadays. 1.3 Supporting Technologies One of the advantages of online property management system is the usage of available technologies that are provided to all users that enhance their online business operation. Other than some common technologies that are usable in all business that provide different usage and advantage to the business, there are also some technologies that provide great advantage on online property management business. 1.3.1 Google Map Google map is a web mapping service application powered by Google. It provide mapping service that show a geographical mapping just like a dynamic country map, it provide the street name and route in many different view and also paths travel by own vehicle, foots or public transport. One of its supports towards property management is to show the direction from one location towards another, as well as showing the shortest route among few paths. All these benefits support users to find out the exact location of a place, and also make users know more about the places surrounding the targeted location in case they want to know more or when they are lost. 1.3.2 Visual Tour Visual tour is a new snapshot technology that able to capture numerous of pictures in a room or environment, using visual tour software and photo stitching software to stitch all the pictures together and produce a 360 degree virtual home view. This technology tend to provide a visual home tour to the property buyers by showing how is the inside of a property looks like when buyers does not need to travel all the way to the property location but using the internet to enjoy a tour just like when they are exactly in the building. To produce a visual tour video, a RTV tour builder kit contains of a camera and custom rotator mount on the side of the camera is needed. To start capturing, place the tripod on a best capturing spot, usually on the middle of a room, then manually rotate the camera one side to another from left to right, and then from top and bottom until every view of that room is being taken. Upon completing the capturing process, a visual tour software by overlapping the sides of all images together to utilize a 360 degree panaromic images. Lastly, the completed visual tour video need to upload to the RTV tour server through the internet to allow tour video automatically customize with owners banner, logo or photos, and then features like hyperlink to post into their websites, google map, and others will be added and send back to the owner. 1.3.3 Other Supporting Tools There are other technologies or tools supporting online property management as well. These tools are not mainly for online property management but also benefit the system operation like other businesses do. * Search function Search function is a common tool that filter information according by using a keyword enter by user and match data available in the current system, and display or show to the users Usually property buyers tend to have a property expectation in their mind before looking for agents to locate the property they want, search function in a system allow buyers to go through some simple steps to find out if theres any property that match their expectations or requirements, instead of searching all the properties one after another. * Mortgage loan calculator A mortgage loan calculator is to calculate the loan needed to pay by a property buyers per months. It usually require user to input some basic information like property value, interest rate, years and down payment to obtain the loan result. This is a simple tool that requires very little effort in developing but requires a correct formula to obtain the accurate result. * Reminding tools A reminding tool usually require user to enter a task name and an expired date. Upon reaching the expired date, user will receive a notification regarding the task. Property agents benefits from reminding tool in various ways. Collecting rental fees is an important process when properties are rented. Sometimes delay rental fees can be quite troublesome and if does not handle carefully, a delay rental fees could be forget or paid rental fees may not recorded properly. Therefore, the task of a reminding tool not only notify user regarding incomplete task but also ensure user about completed task. * Looking for agent Usually it is a good idea to record agents information in a system to allow buyers to look for a particular agent. In a system, not only agents brief personal and contact information could be found, buyers can also found the agents available listing. In case there are buyers who prefer a particular agent service and listing in that area, they can contact the agent directly without contacting the company or other agent. * iExpert A simple Question and Answer (QA) in a system that contain questions ask by the user regarding property issues, and can be answered by other users and working agents. It work like a forum but much more simple than it, it only require user to enter a question if he or she has one, or choose to view all available questions and answer any question if they know. 1.4 Summary As a summary of this chapter, the author has understood how online property management system work compares to real time business. More importantly, the author had conduct studies on the technologies that support online property management system which offer great advantages to the user when using the system. Chapter 2: Analyze Existing Websites 2.0 Overview In this chapter, the author visit and investigate several existing real estate websites to gain understanding in common features and also how other real estate websites manage their information. The author focuses more on some feature that is unique for real estate websites. The author also tend to list out some of their strengths and weaknesses to gain knowledge about pros and cons when manage a real estate business online. 2.1 ThinkProperty ThinkProperty is a free property service website that allows all real estate agents in Malaysia to post their property listing for free. It is owned by Think Media Sdn Bhd and was launched at October 2007. Powerful tools in ThinkProperty make properties more manageable and easier to search. It tends to provide great advantage to the sellers and buyers. 2.1.1 ThinkPropertys Features 2.1.1.1 Member features i) Managing properties Users are requiring registering as a member in order to use the features offer to all members. Register link can be found under login or the side navigation regarding all the features on the right. By clicking on registering, user will navigate to a page listing eight benefits to become a member. On the bottom on the page, user can click on â€Å"Register now† button to register as member by filling up the registration form and upon completing the form, user need to validate their account through e-mail. Then user will be successfully registered as a ThinkPropertys member and allow to login using the registered username and password. Once login, user can see their registered name and a dropdown list contain all available members features on the login interface. The dropdown list contains auto post back function, which means when user selects any option within the drop down list, user will automatically navigate to the page according to the selected option. For features under â€Å"Create new listing†, users will be direct to a form to submit the property they want to add. When they have done submitting it, the added property can be found in features under â€Å"Manage my listing†. User can check back their added listing anytime they want, and can choose to modify the information or delete the added listing. In ‘My properties and ‘My Auctions page, user can choose to filter the order of the listings by selecting property type, posted duration and other option. In property wanted, user can submit a wanted property to the moderator and wait until further notification. Usually agent will notify user by e-mail or contact number regarding the property they want. ii) Personal Profile Some of the information in a member personal profile is filled up during registration, while most of the information is blank. The information in personal profile included user type, company information, contact information, and websites. All this information will be useful if some other user need to find out more about a particular user for some business issues. This will be needed especially in the forum. User will be allowed to use the forum to post new thread or answer to any existing thread when they had become member. Providing all this information will be convenient to other member as well as the agents in case they need to contact the member. Other than entering their personal information, user can upload picture and video of themselves. Added picture will be shown in the profile page when it is viewed. As for video, user need to click on the video button located on the left side to view video in a new pop out. Brief information of the properties owned will also show in this page, as well as latest 10 posted threads in the forum can also be view by clicking on the â€Å"Forum† button. All this function is to ease other member in finding out more about a particular member. iii) Think Mail Think mail serve as a mailing service for members to receive messages sent by other member or agent. This is a simple service to read and delete mails; however it does not support sending message here. User need to go to another member page and click on the ‘Message button to send him or her Think Mail message or e-mail message. Other than this, user can set his or her e-mail alert option. This service is to receive property alert message in case user got use any service like property wanted and awaits agent finding. 2.1.1.2 Forum Just like other forum, ThinkProperty forum contain all types of topic discuss about buying properties, selling properties, property investment, finance issues and much more. Only registered member are allowed to post any question on the suitable thread and await other member to reply or reply to any existed thread. With the support of a forum, all members can get more help and information regarding property issues and problems, and also get to know more about agents and people from other place. A forum also serve as another way to obtain information and solving problem, otherwise user can only communicate to the moderator by using customer support and sending messages. 2.1.1.3 Customer Support In ThinkProperty, there are three ways to obtain supports. First is to use the most common method like many websites do, using the feedback form to send question and awaits reply from the moderator. Second is to use the forum to post new question and awaits replies from other member and moderators. Third is to use the live help desk located on almost every pages on the top right, right below of the main menu navigation. Live help desk is an instant messaging service. When click on it, a new window will pop up and there will be someone there to answer any question asks by the user. This is one effective way to obtain answers instantly without waiting like other two customer support. However, live help desk is not always available to be use. There is no specific time when it is available, but user can found it available many times in a day. 2.1.1.4 Viewing Properties To view the available properties, user has to enter a desire location in the search box on the top of the website. This is a more direct way to find property around an area, instead of viewing all properties from other places at one page. While entering data into the searching box, a drop down that contain some location that match the entered data will show to let user navigate quickly if the target location is within the drop down. When random data being entered, especially when input character is less than 3, location that is not related to the entered data will show. Otherwise, it will show no result match in the drop down. A ‘Display map check box under the search box is to indicate navigate user to view all properties page with its detail or navigate to Google map that shows the entered location and properties contain on that area. 2.10 shows an example of Google map result when display map is checked. The red house symbol below shows the properties that are available around the area. When mouse hover on one of the red symbol, a small dialog box pop out and show brief information about the property. User can click on the click on the bottom of the box to see more information about that property. Without checking the â€Å"Display Map†, when a location is selected, it will navigate to a page that shows all properties with some information located in that searched place. For example, 2.11 shows all properties available in Damansara when user enters Damansara in the search box. On the left side of the page, there is one filtering function to sort the wanted property details. By clicking on any of the filtering option, the function of it will show and allow user to choose or enter related information 2.15 shows the bottom of the property page. Google map of a particular property will be show if the property has information about it. At another side will be the seller information. In case user interested to find out more, they contact using the provided information or use the form below to e-mail the seller. In case user found that a particular property is not available anymore but it is still tag as available, user can simply click on the link beside the red icon below to notify the unavailability of this property to any user that view this property later. When user had done with one property, user can always choose to go back to all the property listing or simply click on the next button to view another property, or click on the previous button to view visited property before this, this two buttons located on top of the view all listings page. 2.1.1.5 Find Agent ThinkProperty does not offer a direct page to view all agents features. To find an agent, user needs to click the â€Å"Find Agent† link above the search box and then choose either find agent by area or by name. In case user knows any particular agent name and hoping for their service, they can try this search box to locate the agent to see all their posted listing. This also eases users when they know the agent name and where they work, but did not have any contact information about the agent. This may not work only if the target agent is not a member of ThinkProperty website. 2.1.2 Strengths and Weaknesses 2.1.2.1 Strengths * Simple, user-friendly interface. Overall web pages do not contain much unnecessary things. Simple looking and direct way to navigate to pages provide good browsing experience to users * Less complex function and process. Most of the process like job application form, submitting properties, searching functions are step by step methods and does not consist of much complicated process, this helps in reducing user confusion when using ThinkPropertys website * Good functionality and features. Sufficient features to provide good properties searching and managing experience * Good customer support service. Contain of more than one types of customer support feature for the purpose of increase efficiency in providing helps to the users when browsing ThinkProperty 2.1.2.2 Weaknesses * Risk might be unavoidable. ThinkProperty may not responsible for any information risk like fake agent or propertys information as they have no control over agents or members information * Searching function is the only way to view all properties and agents. As searching for properties and agents only depends on the searching box provided, first time user may not know how to find property and agent information. 2.2 iProperty During Jan 2009, iProperty was declared as the top property portal in Malaysia by Google Ads Planner. Operating their business in Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, India and Philippines allow clients from different states to use their service. For further development, they are working towards capitalize the property market and maintain their top leading position and continue working on online property advertising. (Sorensen, 2009) 2.2.1 iPropertys Features 2.2.1.1 Members Features Like other websites to use all the features offer to members only, user has to proceed to registration and approved as a member first. Before login, there will be several links under login like My shortlist, My Property Ads and others, but when user click on those link without login, they will be directed to the login page, which contain registering and forgotten password feature. To register, user just has to click on â€Å"Register Now† link located on the top left side of every page or under the login field on login page and navigate to the registering page. Upon submitting the form, user will receive a random generated password in their registered e-mail, user has to use that password and registered username to login, and then they can choose to change the password later on. i) Create Personal Profile Upon registering as member, user can choose to create their personal profile. This feature is optional, other than letting the agents to know more about them when using iPropertys service like property wanted and property ads, it also allow other member to find out more about a particular agent through iExpert. ii) My iExpert iExpert is a service designed to ease the sharing of property information sharing among members. All users are allow to use iExpert to search and view questions and answers provided by the members, however, only members are allow to post new questions and answer existing questions. It serves like a partial forum but does not contain much feature like forums do. iii) My Property Wanted Like other property website, iProperty offer a property wanted feature to all members only that allow them to submit a form consist of the property requirement a buyer want, and let the agents to perform a property search to find available property match the buyer requirement and notify buyers about it. Members who use this feature will keep property wanted information in their profile. 2.2.1.2 Viewing Properties The â€Å"New Property Review† button contain under the drop down of â€Å"New Properties† located on top of the main menu navigation direct users to the latest property listing in iProperty. User can choose to view different types of property by months by selecting from a list box on the right side of the main title. This is one of the ways to view property owned by iProperty. Another way of finding properties is to use the searching function located on top of the page under the main menu or view properties through related developers or agents. Viewing a property consist of several parts. The first part is the propertys review that contain of long description of the particular property. It consists of some pictures regarding the property with describing the surrounding, environment and facility to attract the interest of people to know more about it. The second part is the propertys specification. This page usually of one picture regarding the property and all details like address, property type, land title, tenure, land area, price range, posted date, and side information which are nearby transportation, schools, and amenities. Next part is viewing the property gallery. This page usually consists of photo gallery taken by camera about the property environment. Visual tour will also available in this page if the particular property has any video about visual tour. Map is available in most of the properties to show the location of a property and also direction to approach to it. For those properties that has Google Map details, a map will be provided as well. Lastly, user who interested in a property can register to it using a provided form to let the agent to contact and brief user about further information. Other than property specification, there are extra corner for sending enquiry to the agents or related person, sending enquiry to the developers and also a home loan calculator provided by Maybank with the information of preferred MPF, interest rate, loan years that is already provided according to the property and the monthly repayment result is provided automatically to the user. 2.2.1.3 Visual Tour iProperty provide visual tour service for user to experience a virtual visiting property experience. Visual tour video can be found on the bottom of each property under gallery view. However, not all properties provide visual tour service. User can found properties that contain visual tour service on the â€Å"Visual Tour† link under new properties on the main menu navigation. 2.2.1.4 Find an Agent Finding an agent in iProperty only require a click on â€Å"Find An Agent† button located on top of the page in main menu navigation. From this page, user can see their name, contact number, e-mail and self description. On top of it, there is a search agent function to find an agent by name, state and area, or user can filter all agents according to the first alphabet of their name. By clicking on their name, user will direct to their page that contain all of the listing they hold. User can also send a message to a particular agent in their page by submitting a form above the holding listing. 2.2.1.5 Search Function There are basically three types of search function depend on each pages. Different types of search function shown in different page for different purpose. 2.29 show a search function located on the main page and new project page. There are sufficient data for user to specify the searching information to obtain better matching property. User can click on â€Å"Advance Search† to have more option to search. Alternately, user can choose to filter properties according to different state by clicking â€Å"By Area† or different country by clicking on â€Å"Overseas†. The second searching function is searching agent function. This feature available only in â€Å"Find An Agent† page and the concept is the same with normal searching function. User just has to input the agents name, area or state, or choosing the first alphabet of their name to find a particular agent. The third searching function located on â€Å"Home Service† page. This searching function use to search for available furniture or home products. 2.2.2 Strengths and Weaknesses 2.2.2.1 Strengths * Rich supporting technologies. iProperty consist of several tools like Google Map, Visual Tour, and some other function that make their service very efficient. * Detail properties information. All properties information included location map, floor plan, transportation and amenities nearby, image gallery and other related information provide information more than what the clients want to know. 2.2.2.2 Weaknesses * Too much information in a page may be unnecessary. Most of the pages contain a lot of information even if it is not related to the page. Users may found it confusion on information that is related or none-related to what they need. 2.3 Summary In this chapter, the author analyze some existing real estate company websites. As understanding features they use to enhance their operation is the main priority in this objective, the author has more knowledge on developing a real estate websites, as well as some of the strengths and weaknesses, to be learnt and avoid when developing an online property management system. Chapter 3: Conduct Interview and Survey 3.1 Overview In this chapter, the author conducts interview and surveys to the head of City 2 Property and also some agents who are experience in real estate business. The author uses this two fact finding method to determine the user requirement of the proposed system and the agents expectation towards it. In the end, the author will record the fact finding result and present on this chapter. 3.2 Interview The author decided to conduct an interview to the head of City 2 Property, Mr. Koo Kam Swee, because he is the most suitable person that understands the requirement or the needs of this proposed system. The interview question will be produce base on the purpose of understanding what will Mr. Koo expect the proposed system can do and how it benefits the business operation and the agents in the company. All the interview questions and answers show below contain main questions and some new questions that were asked during the interview. 3.2.1 Interview Questions and Answers 1. What give you an idea of using a website for your business? (To understand the purpose of the proposed system towards the company) Our companys operation mostly depends on paper work as we have already used to it. We never thought about creating a website until I realize the advantage of a website that can help people from the outside to access to our service faster and anytime even after our operation hour. Therefore, creating a website like other real estate company helps the customers to reach us easier. Author finding: The author uses this question to find out the interviewee main purpose of having this proposed system. The author now understand that the manager get the idea that online business provide fast and easy ways to interact with clients, therefore he decide to implement a website for the company. 2. Without a system, what types of problem your company and the agents faces? (To understand how should the proposed system benefit the company) As I mention, most of our works depend on paperwork. Upon completing a document work, if require sending to clients or others, we need to send through letters, awaits receiving, and finally reply back to us. The overall process takes up a great amount of time. If there is a website, we can shorten the time of this type of process so that we can complete a task much faster. Author finding: From above statement, the author understands that the manager hope that the proposed system can benefit by completing a task faster using electronic mail instead of delivering letters which is very time consuming. 3. Other than that, what are other problems exist? For instant, what you think other real estate company with websites benefits compare to your company? (To understand more on the benefits of the interviewee expect towards the proposed system) Having a website for the company nowadays is a type of competitive advantage. I know some of the other real estate company having their own websites, this give them the advantage of allowing clients to reach them easier, meanwhile this become a disadvantage for us as we lack of this service to offer to the clients. Author finding: Spontaneous question continue from the second question, the author try to find out more about the expectation of the manager that the proposed system can benefit the company. The author gives an example of other real estate competitive to make interviewee to think more critical on the benefits he expects. By the answer of the interviewee, the author know that the manager expect the proposed system can be a competitive advantage when compete with other real estate company. 4. For the website, what features you expects most? In another words, what feature you think is the most important in the entire website? (To understand what feature the interviewee concern the most) The most important part in the website would be allowing people to view our properties. We hope that people who view our properties using the website can know all the details of a property when they access the page. Author finding: The author wanted to know what is considering as the most important feature in the proposed system. The answer given shows that the manager expect viewing properties as an important feature that should put effort on for the purpose of allowing the users to know the full details of a property. 5. Other than viewing propertys details, what other feature you hope to be implemented to make viewing properties a better experience for the users? (To make the interviewee consider more on the functionality of the concerned feature) To be able to view propertys picture with all the details, this would be good enough. Additionally, I hope the website can handle some clients services like sending enquiry about a property or provide information about our contact so that their can call us or send message to us whenever they need our service. Author finding: A spontaneous question follows by question number 4. The author trying to make the interviewee think more on adding some functionality that can make viewing properties better for the users. But the manager does not have too high expectation on other function about it, and suggest other feature regarding serving clients by receiving enquiries and mail from them using the proposed system. 6. Will you expect people to be able to register as a member of City 2 Property website? If yes, what do you hope to benefit from this feature? (To understand what the manager think about member system and how to benefit from it) Possible. Having members in our website help us know more about them, in case we want to contact them using mobile phone, we may be able to locate their contact information through the website. Author finding: The author finds out that the manager does not have high expectation on the member system as well. The manager hopes that this feature can be used to find out the members contact information so that the agent can contact them when necessary. 7. If a member system is implemented, what you think about allowing members to sell their properties using the website? (To understand what the manager think about selling properties online) I guess this should be no different than clients call up to offer their properties to us. If what I think is correct, th Online Property Management System Online Property Management System Study and Develop of an online property management system for City 2 Property Chapter 1: Literature Review 1.1 Overview In this chapter, the author conducts literature review mainly on the studies of online property management system to find out how property management works on the internet. The author also focuses on the technologies and tools involved in making online property management system more efficient. 1.2 Online Property Management Online property management basically contains most of the business method that renovate to the internet. It is the management of property management using online tools. When online property management implemented, it make many things like booking keeping, collecting rental fees, managing properties and contact with clients more easy and efficient. Online property management is simple and usually do not require any high performance or complicated application to work on. Usually, many real estate company in Malaysia still prefer paperwork instead of using property management system to enhance their operation. One of the reason is the preference of paperwork and not use to working on system when think about working using a system. Therefore, less complicated interface and process in online property management system give advantages to those who considering on implementing system work into their business. And for this reason, it encourages online property management system to a higher demand level in online business nowadays. 1.3 Supporting Technologies One of the advantages of online property management system is the usage of available technologies that are provided to all users that enhance their online business operation. Other than some common technologies that are usable in all business that provide different usage and advantage to the business, there are also some technologies that provide great advantage on online property management business. 1.3.1 Google Map Google map is a web mapping service application powered by Google. It provide mapping service that show a geographical mapping just like a dynamic country map, it provide the street name and route in many different view and also paths travel by own vehicle, foots or public transport. One of its supports towards property management is to show the direction from one location towards another, as well as showing the shortest route among few paths. All these benefits support users to find out the exact location of a place, and also make users know more about the places surrounding the targeted location in case they want to know more or when they are lost. 1.3.2 Visual Tour Visual tour is a new snapshot technology that able to capture numerous of pictures in a room or environment, using visual tour software and photo stitching software to stitch all the pictures together and produce a 360 degree virtual home view. This technology tend to provide a visual home tour to the property buyers by showing how is the inside of a property looks like when buyers does not need to travel all the way to the property location but using the internet to enjoy a tour just like when they are exactly in the building. To produce a visual tour video, a RTV tour builder kit contains of a camera and custom rotator mount on the side of the camera is needed. To start capturing, place the tripod on a best capturing spot, usually on the middle of a room, then manually rotate the camera one side to another from left to right, and then from top and bottom until every view of that room is being taken. Upon completing the capturing process, a visual tour software by overlapping the sides of all images together to utilize a 360 degree panaromic images. Lastly, the completed visual tour video need to upload to the RTV tour server through the internet to allow tour video automatically customize with owners banner, logo or photos, and then features like hyperlink to post into their websites, google map, and others will be added and send back to the owner. 1.3.3 Other Supporting Tools There are other technologies or tools supporting online property management as well. These tools are not mainly for online property management but also benefit the system operation like other businesses do. * Search function Search function is a common tool that filter information according by using a keyword enter by user and match data available in the current system, and display or show to the users Usually property buyers tend to have a property expectation in their mind before looking for agents to locate the property they want, search function in a system allow buyers to go through some simple steps to find out if theres any property that match their expectations or requirements, instead of searching all the properties one after another. * Mortgage loan calculator A mortgage loan calculator is to calculate the loan needed to pay by a property buyers per months. It usually require user to input some basic information like property value, interest rate, years and down payment to obtain the loan result. This is a simple tool that requires very little effort in developing but requires a correct formula to obtain the accurate result. * Reminding tools A reminding tool usually require user to enter a task name and an expired date. Upon reaching the expired date, user will receive a notification regarding the task. Property agents benefits from reminding tool in various ways. Collecting rental fees is an important process when properties are rented. Sometimes delay rental fees can be quite troublesome and if does not handle carefully, a delay rental fees could be forget or paid rental fees may not recorded properly. Therefore, the task of a reminding tool not only notify user regarding incomplete task but also ensure user about completed task. * Looking for agent Usually it is a good idea to record agents information in a system to allow buyers to look for a particular agent. In a system, not only agents brief personal and contact information could be found, buyers can also found the agents available listing. In case there are buyers who prefer a particular agent service and listing in that area, they can contact the agent directly without contacting the company or other agent. * iExpert A simple Question and Answer (QA) in a system that contain questions ask by the user regarding property issues, and can be answered by other users and working agents. It work like a forum but much more simple than it, it only require user to enter a question if he or she has one, or choose to view all available questions and answer any question if they know. 1.4 Summary As a summary of this chapter, the author has understood how online property management system work compares to real time business. More importantly, the author had conduct studies on the technologies that support online property management system which offer great advantages to the user when using the system. Chapter 2: Analyze Existing Websites 2.0 Overview In this chapter, the author visit and investigate several existing real estate websites to gain understanding in common features and also how other real estate websites manage their information. The author focuses more on some feature that is unique for real estate websites. The author also tend to list out some of their strengths and weaknesses to gain knowledge about pros and cons when manage a real estate business online. 2.1 ThinkProperty ThinkProperty is a free property service website that allows all real estate agents in Malaysia to post their property listing for free. It is owned by Think Media Sdn Bhd and was launched at October 2007. Powerful tools in ThinkProperty make properties more manageable and easier to search. It tends to provide great advantage to the sellers and buyers. 2.1.1 ThinkPropertys Features 2.1.1.1 Member features i) Managing properties Users are requiring registering as a member in order to use the features offer to all members. Register link can be found under login or the side navigation regarding all the features on the right. By clicking on registering, user will navigate to a page listing eight benefits to become a member. On the bottom on the page, user can click on â€Å"Register now† button to register as member by filling up the registration form and upon completing the form, user need to validate their account through e-mail. Then user will be successfully registered as a ThinkPropertys member and allow to login using the registered username and password. Once login, user can see their registered name and a dropdown list contain all available members features on the login interface. The dropdown list contains auto post back function, which means when user selects any option within the drop down list, user will automatically navigate to the page according to the selected option. For features under â€Å"Create new listing†, users will be direct to a form to submit the property they want to add. When they have done submitting it, the added property can be found in features under â€Å"Manage my listing†. User can check back their added listing anytime they want, and can choose to modify the information or delete the added listing. In ‘My properties and ‘My Auctions page, user can choose to filter the order of the listings by selecting property type, posted duration and other option. In property wanted, user can submit a wanted property to the moderator and wait until further notification. Usually agent will notify user by e-mail or contact number regarding the property they want. ii) Personal Profile Some of the information in a member personal profile is filled up during registration, while most of the information is blank. The information in personal profile included user type, company information, contact information, and websites. All this information will be useful if some other user need to find out more about a particular user for some business issues. This will be needed especially in the forum. User will be allowed to use the forum to post new thread or answer to any existing thread when they had become member. Providing all this information will be convenient to other member as well as the agents in case they need to contact the member. Other than entering their personal information, user can upload picture and video of themselves. Added picture will be shown in the profile page when it is viewed. As for video, user need to click on the video button located on the left side to view video in a new pop out. Brief information of the properties owned will also show in this page, as well as latest 10 posted threads in the forum can also be view by clicking on the â€Å"Forum† button. All this function is to ease other member in finding out more about a particular member. iii) Think Mail Think mail serve as a mailing service for members to receive messages sent by other member or agent. This is a simple service to read and delete mails; however it does not support sending message here. User need to go to another member page and click on the ‘Message button to send him or her Think Mail message or e-mail message. Other than this, user can set his or her e-mail alert option. This service is to receive property alert message in case user got use any service like property wanted and awaits agent finding. 2.1.1.2 Forum Just like other forum, ThinkProperty forum contain all types of topic discuss about buying properties, selling properties, property investment, finance issues and much more. Only registered member are allowed to post any question on the suitable thread and await other member to reply or reply to any existed thread. With the support of a forum, all members can get more help and information regarding property issues and problems, and also get to know more about agents and people from other place. A forum also serve as another way to obtain information and solving problem, otherwise user can only communicate to the moderator by using customer support and sending messages. 2.1.1.3 Customer Support In ThinkProperty, there are three ways to obtain supports. First is to use the most common method like many websites do, using the feedback form to send question and awaits reply from the moderator. Second is to use the forum to post new question and awaits replies from other member and moderators. Third is to use the live help desk located on almost every pages on the top right, right below of the main menu navigation. Live help desk is an instant messaging service. When click on it, a new window will pop up and there will be someone there to answer any question asks by the user. This is one effective way to obtain answers instantly without waiting like other two customer support. However, live help desk is not always available to be use. There is no specific time when it is available, but user can found it available many times in a day. 2.1.1.4 Viewing Properties To view the available properties, user has to enter a desire location in the search box on the top of the website. This is a more direct way to find property around an area, instead of viewing all properties from other places at one page. While entering data into the searching box, a drop down that contain some location that match the entered data will show to let user navigate quickly if the target location is within the drop down. When random data being entered, especially when input character is less than 3, location that is not related to the entered data will show. Otherwise, it will show no result match in the drop down. A ‘Display map check box under the search box is to indicate navigate user to view all properties page with its detail or navigate to Google map that shows the entered location and properties contain on that area. 2.10 shows an example of Google map result when display map is checked. The red house symbol below shows the properties that are available around the area. When mouse hover on one of the red symbol, a small dialog box pop out and show brief information about the property. User can click on the click on the bottom of the box to see more information about that property. Without checking the â€Å"Display Map†, when a location is selected, it will navigate to a page that shows all properties with some information located in that searched place. For example, 2.11 shows all properties available in Damansara when user enters Damansara in the search box. On the left side of the page, there is one filtering function to sort the wanted property details. By clicking on any of the filtering option, the function of it will show and allow user to choose or enter related information 2.15 shows the bottom of the property page. Google map of a particular property will be show if the property has information about it. At another side will be the seller information. In case user interested to find out more, they contact using the provided information or use the form below to e-mail the seller. In case user found that a particular property is not available anymore but it is still tag as available, user can simply click on the link beside the red icon below to notify the unavailability of this property to any user that view this property later. When user had done with one property, user can always choose to go back to all the property listing or simply click on the next button to view another property, or click on the previous button to view visited property before this, this two buttons located on top of the view all listings page. 2.1.1.5 Find Agent ThinkProperty does not offer a direct page to view all agents features. To find an agent, user needs to click the â€Å"Find Agent† link above the search box and then choose either find agent by area or by name. In case user knows any particular agent name and hoping for their service, they can try this search box to locate the agent to see all their posted listing. This also eases users when they know the agent name and where they work, but did not have any contact information about the agent. This may not work only if the target agent is not a member of ThinkProperty website. 2.1.2 Strengths and Weaknesses 2.1.2.1 Strengths * Simple, user-friendly interface. Overall web pages do not contain much unnecessary things. Simple looking and direct way to navigate to pages provide good browsing experience to users * Less complex function and process. Most of the process like job application form, submitting properties, searching functions are step by step methods and does not consist of much complicated process, this helps in reducing user confusion when using ThinkPropertys website * Good functionality and features. Sufficient features to provide good properties searching and managing experience * Good customer support service. Contain of more than one types of customer support feature for the purpose of increase efficiency in providing helps to the users when browsing ThinkProperty 2.1.2.2 Weaknesses * Risk might be unavoidable. ThinkProperty may not responsible for any information risk like fake agent or propertys information as they have no control over agents or members information * Searching function is the only way to view all properties and agents. As searching for properties and agents only depends on the searching box provided, first time user may not know how to find property and agent information. 2.2 iProperty During Jan 2009, iProperty was declared as the top property portal in Malaysia by Google Ads Planner. Operating their business in Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, India and Philippines allow clients from different states to use their service. For further development, they are working towards capitalize the property market and maintain their top leading position and continue working on online property advertising. (Sorensen, 2009) 2.2.1 iPropertys Features 2.2.1.1 Members Features Like other websites to use all the features offer to members only, user has to proceed to registration and approved as a member first. Before login, there will be several links under login like My shortlist, My Property Ads and others, but when user click on those link without login, they will be directed to the login page, which contain registering and forgotten password feature. To register, user just has to click on â€Å"Register Now† link located on the top left side of every page or under the login field on login page and navigate to the registering page. Upon submitting the form, user will receive a random generated password in their registered e-mail, user has to use that password and registered username to login, and then they can choose to change the password later on. i) Create Personal Profile Upon registering as member, user can choose to create their personal profile. This feature is optional, other than letting the agents to know more about them when using iPropertys service like property wanted and property ads, it also allow other member to find out more about a particular agent through iExpert. ii) My iExpert iExpert is a service designed to ease the sharing of property information sharing among members. All users are allow to use iExpert to search and view questions and answers provided by the members, however, only members are allow to post new questions and answer existing questions. It serves like a partial forum but does not contain much feature like forums do. iii) My Property Wanted Like other property website, iProperty offer a property wanted feature to all members only that allow them to submit a form consist of the property requirement a buyer want, and let the agents to perform a property search to find available property match the buyer requirement and notify buyers about it. Members who use this feature will keep property wanted information in their profile. 2.2.1.2 Viewing Properties The â€Å"New Property Review† button contain under the drop down of â€Å"New Properties† located on top of the main menu navigation direct users to the latest property listing in iProperty. User can choose to view different types of property by months by selecting from a list box on the right side of the main title. This is one of the ways to view property owned by iProperty. Another way of finding properties is to use the searching function located on top of the page under the main menu or view properties through related developers or agents. Viewing a property consist of several parts. The first part is the propertys review that contain of long description of the particular property. It consists of some pictures regarding the property with describing the surrounding, environment and facility to attract the interest of people to know more about it. The second part is the propertys specification. This page usually of one picture regarding the property and all details like address, property type, land title, tenure, land area, price range, posted date, and side information which are nearby transportation, schools, and amenities. Next part is viewing the property gallery. This page usually consists of photo gallery taken by camera about the property environment. Visual tour will also available in this page if the particular property has any video about visual tour. Map is available in most of the properties to show the location of a property and also direction to approach to it. For those properties that has Google Map details, a map will be provided as well. Lastly, user who interested in a property can register to it using a provided form to let the agent to contact and brief user about further information. Other than property specification, there are extra corner for sending enquiry to the agents or related person, sending enquiry to the developers and also a home loan calculator provided by Maybank with the information of preferred MPF, interest rate, loan years that is already provided according to the property and the monthly repayment result is provided automatically to the user. 2.2.1.3 Visual Tour iProperty provide visual tour service for user to experience a virtual visiting property experience. Visual tour video can be found on the bottom of each property under gallery view. However, not all properties provide visual tour service. User can found properties that contain visual tour service on the â€Å"Visual Tour† link under new properties on the main menu navigation. 2.2.1.4 Find an Agent Finding an agent in iProperty only require a click on â€Å"Find An Agent† button located on top of the page in main menu navigation. From this page, user can see their name, contact number, e-mail and self description. On top of it, there is a search agent function to find an agent by name, state and area, or user can filter all agents according to the first alphabet of their name. By clicking on their name, user will direct to their page that contain all of the listing they hold. User can also send a message to a particular agent in their page by submitting a form above the holding listing. 2.2.1.5 Search Function There are basically three types of search function depend on each pages. Different types of search function shown in different page for different purpose. 2.29 show a search function located on the main page and new project page. There are sufficient data for user to specify the searching information to obtain better matching property. User can click on â€Å"Advance Search† to have more option to search. Alternately, user can choose to filter properties according to different state by clicking â€Å"By Area† or different country by clicking on â€Å"Overseas†. The second searching function is searching agent function. This feature available only in â€Å"Find An Agent† page and the concept is the same with normal searching function. User just has to input the agents name, area or state, or choosing the first alphabet of their name to find a particular agent. The third searching function located on â€Å"Home Service† page. This searching function use to search for available furniture or home products. 2.2.2 Strengths and Weaknesses 2.2.2.1 Strengths * Rich supporting technologies. iProperty consist of several tools like Google Map, Visual Tour, and some other function that make their service very efficient. * Detail properties information. All properties information included location map, floor plan, transportation and amenities nearby, image gallery and other related information provide information more than what the clients want to know. 2.2.2.2 Weaknesses * Too much information in a page may be unnecessary. Most of the pages contain a lot of information even if it is not related to the page. Users may found it confusion on information that is related or none-related to what they need. 2.3 Summary In this chapter, the author analyze some existing real estate company websites. As understanding features they use to enhance their operation is the main priority in this objective, the author has more knowledge on developing a real estate websites, as well as some of the strengths and weaknesses, to be learnt and avoid when developing an online property management system. Chapter 3: Conduct Interview and Survey 3.1 Overview In this chapter, the author conducts interview and surveys to the head of City 2 Property and also some agents who are experience in real estate business. The author uses this two fact finding method to determine the user requirement of the proposed system and the agents expectation towards it. In the end, the author will record the fact finding result and present on this chapter. 3.2 Interview The author decided to conduct an interview to the head of City 2 Property, Mr. Koo Kam Swee, because he is the most suitable person that understands the requirement or the needs of this proposed system. The interview question will be produce base on the purpose of understanding what will Mr. Koo expect the proposed system can do and how it benefits the business operation and the agents in the company. All the interview questions and answers show below contain main questions and some new questions that were asked during the interview. 3.2.1 Interview Questions and Answers 1. What give you an idea of using a website for your business? (To understand the purpose of the proposed system towards the company) Our companys operation mostly depends on paper work as we have already used to it. We never thought about creating a website until I realize the advantage of a website that can help people from the outside to access to our service faster and anytime even after our operation hour. Therefore, creating a website like other real estate company helps the customers to reach us easier. Author finding: The author uses this question to find out the interviewee main purpose of having this proposed system. The author now understand that the manager get the idea that online business provide fast and easy ways to interact with clients, therefore he decide to implement a website for the company. 2. Without a system, what types of problem your company and the agents faces? (To understand how should the proposed system benefit the company) As I mention, most of our works depend on paperwork. Upon completing a document work, if require sending to clients or others, we need to send through letters, awaits receiving, and finally reply back to us. The overall process takes up a great amount of time. If there is a website, we can shorten the time of this type of process so that we can complete a task much faster. Author finding: From above statement, the author understands that the manager hope that the proposed system can benefit by completing a task faster using electronic mail instead of delivering letters which is very time consuming. 3. Other than that, what are other problems exist? For instant, what you think other real estate company with websites benefits compare to your company? (To understand more on the benefits of the interviewee expect towards the proposed system) Having a website for the company nowadays is a type of competitive advantage. I know some of the other real estate company having their own websites, this give them the advantage of allowing clients to reach them easier, meanwhile this become a disadvantage for us as we lack of this service to offer to the clients. Author finding: Spontaneous question continue from the second question, the author try to find out more about the expectation of the manager that the proposed system can benefit the company. The author gives an example of other real estate competitive to make interviewee to think more critical on the benefits he expects. By the answer of the interviewee, the author know that the manager expect the proposed system can be a competitive advantage when compete with other real estate company. 4. For the website, what features you expects most? In another words, what feature you think is the most important in the entire website? (To understand what feature the interviewee concern the most) The most important part in the website would be allowing people to view our properties. We hope that people who view our properties using the website can know all the details of a property when they access the page. Author finding: The author wanted to know what is considering as the most important feature in the proposed system. The answer given shows that the manager expect viewing properties as an important feature that should put effort on for the purpose of allowing the users to know the full details of a property. 5. Other than viewing propertys details, what other feature you hope to be implemented to make viewing properties a better experience for the users? (To make the interviewee consider more on the functionality of the concerned feature) To be able to view propertys picture with all the details, this would be good enough. Additionally, I hope the website can handle some clients services like sending enquiry about a property or provide information about our contact so that their can call us or send message to us whenever they need our service. Author finding: A spontaneous question follows by question number 4. The author trying to make the interviewee think more on adding some functionality that can make viewing properties better for the users. But the manager does not have too high expectation on other function about it, and suggest other feature regarding serving clients by receiving enquiries and mail from them using the proposed system. 6. Will you expect people to be able to register as a member of City 2 Property website? If yes, what do you hope to benefit from this feature? (To understand what the manager think about member system and how to benefit from it) Possible. Having members in our website help us know more about them, in case we want to contact them using mobile phone, we may be able to locate their contact information through the website. Author finding: The author finds out that the manager does not have high expectation on the member system as well. The manager hopes that this feature can be used to find out the members contact information so that the agent can contact them when necessary. 7. If a member system is implemented, what you think about allowing members to sell their properties using the website? (To understand what the manager think about selling properties online) I guess this should be no different than clients call up to offer their properties to us. If what I think is correct, th

35 Things to Do for Your Career by 35

35 Things to Do for Your Career by 35 With the average life expectancy being 70 years for men and 74 years for women, it would be good ...